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Rh blood system. Difference between ABO and Rh blood types Six Rh antigens, each is called Rh factor. C,D,E,c,d,e Type D antigen is most prevalent and more antigenic Persons having D antigen--- Rh positive Persons not having D antigen--- Rh negative

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rh blood system
Rh blood system
  • Difference between ABO and Rh blood types
  • Six Rh antigens, each is called Rh factor.
  • C,D,E,c,d,e
  • Type D antigen is most prevalent and more antigenic
  • Persons having D antigen--- Rh positive
  • Persons not having D antigen--- Rh negative
  • + stands for Rh e.g. A+ve, B+ve, AB+ve, O+ve
erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of newborn
Erythroblastosisfetalis or hemolytic disease of newborn
  • Is a disease of fetus and newborn
  • Mother is Rh –ve ,Father Rh +ve
  • Danger is only when fetus acquires Rh +ve from father
  • The first pregnancy usually proceeds without problems
  • At birth, mother may receive some of baby’s RBCs
  • Mom’s immune system is sensitized
  • Makes antibodies against Rh
  • In a subsequent pregnancy:
  • Mother’s blood carries antibodies
  • Anti-Rh antibodies cross placenta
  • Attack the Rh+ blood in the fetus Antigen – Antibody reaction
  • Agglutination of RBCs of fetus
clinical picture of erythroblastosis fetalis
Clinical picture of Erythroblastosisfetalis
  • Anemic or jaundiced
  • Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
  • Nucleated blastic forms appear in blood
  • Permanent brain impairment or damage to motor areas of brain due to deposition of bilirubin in the neuronal cells--- Kernicterus
prevention and treatment
Prevention and treatment

Injecting Anti D antibody or Rhimmunoglobulin

  • Inhibit antigen – induced B lymphocyte antibody production in the expectant mother.
  • It attaches to D antigen sites on Rh +ve fetal RBCs that may cross the placenta and enter circulation of expectant mother.

Replacement of fetus blood with Rh –ve

blood to minimize the levels of bilirubin

hazards of blood transfusion
Hazards of Blood Transfusion

1.Mismatched blood transfusion

a)Immediate hemolysis by IgM antibodies called hemolysins

b)Delayed hemolysis after agglutination and phagocytosis

Outcomes of hemolysis

Jaundice

Acute renal shutdown

2.Transmission of diseases

3. Hyperkalemia