Abo rh blood typing
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ABO/ Rh Blood Typing . Activity. ABO and Rh Blood Typing. ABO/ Rh is the most commonly used system for classifying blood type. It was developed in the late 1800’s by Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner.

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Abo rh blood typing

ABO/Rh Blood Typing


Abo and rh blood typing
ABO and Rh Blood Typing

  • ABO/Rh is the most commonly used system for classifying blood type.

  • It was developed in the late 1800’s by Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner.

  • He noted that when human blood was transfused to other animals it would clump up (agglutinate).

  • Landsteiner realized that this effect with humans would be disastrous.

Abo blood types
ABO Blood Types

  • By the early 1900’s Landsteiner discovered 2 distinct proteins (A and B) on the surface of human blood

  • He recognized 4 distinct blood types due to the presence or absence of these molecules

  • A Molecule – Type A Blood

  • B Molecule – Type B Blood

  • Both A and B Molecules – Type AB Blood

  • Neither A nor B Molecules – Type O Blood

Abo antigens and antibodies
ABO Antigens and Antibodies

  • A and B proteins turn out to be Antigens

  • Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response in people.

  • VIP – Research indicated that people have specific Antibodies (substances that attack antigens in the immune response) in the plasma.

  • Type A Blood has Anti B - Type B Blood has Anti A

  • Type AB has neither antibody - Type O Blood has both A&B

Consequences for blood
Consequences for Blood

  • Type A Blood (anti-B antibodies) would reject Type B Blood

  • Type B Blood (anti-A antibodies) would reject Type A Blood

  • Type O Blood (No antigens) – can be donated to anyone but only receive its own

  • Type AB Blood (Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies are present) – can only donate to its own but can receive from anyone

Rh antigens
Rh Antigens

  • Landsteiner worked Alexander Wiener and they discovered that when blood from a Rhesus Monkey was transfused into a rabbit, the rabbit would produce antibodies that also attacked human blood.

  • The antibodies to the Rh antigens created the Rh factor. (Rhesus Monkey)

  • People with Rh antigens are Rh+

  • People without Rh antigens are Rh-

Table 2 abo rh blood types
Table 2: ABO/Rh Blood Types

Determining abo rh blood type
Determining ABO/Rh Blood Type

  • Easier than you think – remember

  • anti-A and anti-B determine ABO

  • anti-Rh determines + or –

  • All you need is blood samples and the antibodies to add to them (A, B, Rh)

  • You can eliminate possibilities based agglutination during the mixing.

Table 3 blood type antisera reactions
Table 3: Blood Type/Antisera Reactions