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PARTICIPATION. Rationale for Participation in Development :. Emerged internationally when UN announced that 1961 – 1970 as first development decade 1971 – 1980 as second development decade. Why?.

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Rationale for participation in development
Rationale for Participation in Development :

  • Emerged internationally when UN announced that

    1961 – 1970 as first development decade

    1971 – 1980 as second development decade


Participation
Why?

Because participation became one of the ingredients in development, to complement the approaches before 1960 which had been too economic oriented.


Other characteristics of development before the 60s were
Other characteristics of development before the 60s were:

  • top-down planning of development

  • No two-way communication between people and government

  • Unidirectional of development


Participation

Bottom up approach of development is necessary. This suggests the need for people participation.


Another two concepts emerged with participation
Another two concepts emerged suggests the need for people participation.with participation:

  • Mobilization  process to activate the use of human resources (before they were considered passive)

  • Intervention  government or authority participates in the planning of program with the agreement of people.


Characteristics of community participation
Characteristics of community participation: suggests the need for people participation.

  • Volunteer contribution

  • Involvement of community in decision making, implementation, evaluation and sharing the benefits of development.

  • Exercising the rights of community in problem identification and problem solving.


Participation


Definition of participation by ilo 1985
Definition of Participation, by ILO (1985): utilization of physical and human resources.

  • Initiative of community and development planners in the process of decision-making, implementation of program, evaluation and sharing the benefits of development


Definition by ilo 1984
Definition by ILO (1984) utilization of physical and human resources.

  • Mass sharing in decision-making

    Mass sharing in implementation

    Mass sharing of the benefits of

    development


Definition by castillo 1986
Definition by Castillo (1986) utilization of physical and human resources.

  • Membership in community organization

  • Contribution of personal labour, materials and monetary assistance to infrastructural, health and sanitation projects, etc.

  • Patronage of agency


Participation

4) Attendance at community assemblies – meeting, courses, workshops, dialogue

5) Cognitive participation – being the recipients of information about community activities.


Factors contributing to community participation
Factors Contributing to Community Participation: workshops, dialogue

  • Benefits expected to receive from participation – material gains and non-material gains

  • Availability of organization

    - vehicle for participation


Participation

- organization provides leadership workshops, dialogue

- CD programs are planned and

implemented

- organization provides structured

rules, procedures and

administration

- used in channeling the resources


When life is being in danger
When life is being in danger workshops, dialogue

- People will react in a group when life is being threatened e.g. Due to flood, dengue fever, community work is easy to mobilize.


Feeling of responsibility
Feeling of responsibility workshops, dialogue

  • Related to altruism or unselfishness or concern for others

  • This is a social value of wanting to participate

    E.g.

    Involvement of parent in PTA


Actors in participation
Actors in Participation workshops, dialogue

  • Actors are those who participate in CD

  • Actors are many, involving many people  popular participation or people participation

  • Who are the actors, depending on the type of programs.


Take for example program healthy lifestyle for expecting mothers
Take for example Program Healthy Lifestyle for Expecting Mothers

i - Target group

(Mothers who are expecting babies), including family members such as husbands.

ii - Hospital personnel such as doctors,

specialists, nurses and support staff.

iii - District clinics and the staff


Participation

iv - Researchers (IMR, University) Mothers

vi - Personnel from the Ministry of

Health

vii - Donor agency (if any) at international level e.g. WHO

viii - Community leaders such as VDSC (JKKK)