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Chapter 11. Practical Applications of Immunology. Vaccine History. Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century). Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin. Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Practical Applications of Immunology

slide2

Vaccine History

  • Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century).
  • Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin.
  • Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.
principal vaccines used in the united states to prevent bacterial diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans
  • DtaP
    • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid
    • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis
    • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid
  • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein
principal vaccines used in the united states to prevent viral diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Viral Diseases in Humans
  • Smallpox: Live vaccinia virus
  • Poliomyelitis: Inactivated virus
  • Rabies: Inactivated virus
  • Hepatitis A: Inactivated virus
  • Influenza: Inactivated or attenuated virus
  • Measles: Attenuated virus
  • Mumps: Attenuated virus
  • Rubella: Attenuated virus
  • Chickenpox: Attenuated virus
  • Hepatitis B: Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine)
monoclonal antibodies mabs
Monoclonal Antibodies (Mabs)
  • Alemtuzumab: For leukemia
  • Infliximab: For Crohn’s disease
  • Rituximab: For non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Trastuzumab: Herceptin for breast cancer
  • Basiliximab and daclizumab: Block IL–2, immunosuppresives for transplants
  • Palivizumab: Treatment of RSV
monoclonal antibodies1
Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Immunotoxins: Mabs conjugated with a toxin to target cancer cells.
  • Chimeric mabs: Genetically modified mice that produce Ab with a human constant region.
  • Humanized mabs: Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding.
  • Fully human antibodies: Mabs produced from a human gene on a mouse.
precipitation reactions
Precipitation Reactions
  • Involve soluble antigens with antibodies.

Figure 18.4

agglutination reactions
Agglutination Reactions
  • Involve particulate antigens and antibodies.
  • Antigens may be
    • On a cell (direct agglutination).
    • Attached to latex spheres (indirect or passive agglutination).

Figure 18.5

antibody titer
Antibody Titer
  • Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen.

Figure 18.6

viral hemagglutination
Viral Hemagglutination
  • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs.
  • Some viruses agglutinate RBCs in vitro.

Figure 18.8

viral hemagglutination inhibition
Viral Hemagglutination-Inhibition
  • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs.
  • Some viruses agglutinate RBCs in vitro.
  • Antibodies prevent hemagglutination.

Figure 18.9b

neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions
  • Eliminate the harmful effect of a virus or exotoxin.

Figure 18.9b

complement fixation test
Complement Fixation Test

Figure 18.10 (1 of 2)

complement fixation test1
Complement Fixation Test

Figure 18.10 (2 of 2)