Targeting Technology for Autistic Spectrum Disorder Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss, Ph.D, OT Dept. of Occupational Therapy Faculty of Social Welfare & Health Sciences University of Haifa email@example.com . Virtual Reality.
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Targeting Technology for Autistic Spectrum DisorderPatrice L. (Tamar) Weiss, Ph.D, OTDept. of Occupational TherapyFaculty of Social Welfare & Health SciencesUniversity of Haifatamar@research.haifa.ac.il
Virtual Reality Applying interactive simulations created with computer hardware and software to present users with opportunities to engage in environments that appear and feel similar to real world objects and events
Virtual Reality Continuum HighTech Low Tech Cost Complexity Presence
User – Location Plane Examples StreetCrossing for ASD Virtual Classroom for ADHD IREX Meal-Maker for CP 4 4
Functional Virtual Environments Desktop System: Street crossing • 6 children, 9-16 years, low functioning ASD used desktop VR street crossing intervention program (ten 30 min sessions); 6 children with ASD as controls. • All children in VR group improved in task while operating the VE. • all succeeded in advancing from initial baseline performance to their final baseline significantly • number of accidents decreased significantly • transfer of skills: 3/6 children achieved greater proficiency in the protected real street environment occurred Josman, N., Milika Ben-Chaim, H., Friedrich, S. and Weiss, P.L. Effectiveness of virtual reality for teaching street-crossing skills to children and adolescents with autism. International Journal of Disability and Human Development. 7: 49-56, 2008. Bart, O., Katz, N., Weiss P.L., & Josman, N. Street crossing by typically developed children in real and virtual environments. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 28: 89-97, 2008. New VE
Functional Virtual Environments Video Capture Systems: IREX vs EyeToy Virtual Meal Maker: IREX clip 7 years, mainstream school in the first grade, has mild right hemiparesis
Functional Virtual Environments Video Capture Systems: IREX vs EyeToy Using EyeToy with and without adaptation
Functional Virtual Environments Virtual Classroom using a Head Mounted Display Virtual classroom Heads Rizzo et al., University of Southern California Pollak, Y. Weiss, P. L., Rizzo, A.A., Gross-Tsur, V., Shalev, R. The utility of a continuous performance test embedded in virtual reality in measuring ADHD-related deficits. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, in press.
School of Occupational Therapy, Hebrew University 2. Chaim Sheba Medical Center 3. Dept. of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa Virtual Reality Assets for Rehabilitation and Special Education Ecological validity Grade cognitive & motor demands Convenient times & locations Performance can be documented Easy to test & change Safe for user
User – Location Plane 10 10
DiamondTouch Interactive Table • Mitsubishi Electronic Research Lab (MERL) • Large horizontal interactive surface • Table-top interaction modality • Operated through PC using Flash programming • Images are top projected Gal, E., Bauminger, N., Goren-Bar, D., Pianesi, F., Stock,O., Zancanaro, M. and Weiss, P.L. Enhancing social communication of children with high functioning autism through a co-located interface. Artificial Intelligence & Society, 24:75–84, 2009. Kupersmitt, J., Yifat, R., Gal, E., Bauminger, N., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M., Pianesi, F. and Weiss, P.L. Joint construction of stories by high functioning children with autism: Using a technological setting. Int J Child Adolesc Health 3: 00-00, 2010.
Story Table • Interface to support pairs of children in the activity of collaborative storytelling • Implements “Enforced Collaboration” paradigm Story characters Lady bugs to hold audio snippets Alternate story backgrounds Voice recording Story sequence
Story Table: Initial Study • SAMPLE • 3 pairs of boy with high functioning ASD, 8-11 years • OUTCOME MEASURES • Behavioral Checklist (based on Bauminger, Aviezer & Rogers, 2004) • positive social interactions (e.g., look at peer with positive affect) • negative social interactions (e.g., ignoring action of peer) • autistic behaviors (e.g., perseveration) • Analysis of language usage in the interactions and in the narrations
Story Table: Initial Study Pre- and Post-tests MarbleWorks Free structure play construction game Link to ST intervention video clip Low-Tech ST scenarios with cardboard figures Link to 1 min video clip
Story Table: Initial Study • Comparison of Pre and Post outcomes • increase in key positive social interactions • decrease in negative interactions • increase in narrative and play ability
Collaborative Puzzle Game: Options for non verbal children
PlayCubes: Individual or Collaboration - DCD Real-time Interaction Real-time 3D Modeling Bi-directional Interface
PlayCubes: Individual or Collaboration - DCD Quantitative tracking of the similarity scores during the construction process Similarity versus time during the construction of the airplane and slide apparatus Airplane Slide
User – Location Plane 24 24 24
Central Unit Therapist / Educator / Psychologist Remote User Home / School / Community Central System(phase II) Central DB(phase II) From Avatars to Virtual Humans (Tele-Health) Autism tele-consult
From Avatars to Virtual Humans Autism : Justine Cassel’s virtual peers Eye tracking Autism : virtual mall
Second Life an Internet-based virtual world launched in 2003 by Linden’s Lab http://lindenlab.com). • “Residents” inhabit virtual worlds and interact via avatars • Users participate in individual and group activities, and to create and trade items and services using Linden dollars • By the end of March 2008, 13 million registered accounts. About 38,000 residents are logged on to Second Life at any particular moment. • number of medical & health educational projects: • Nutrition Game • Occupational Therapy at the Virtual Neurological Education Centre • Brigadoon designed for people with Asperger’s syndrome. Brigadoon - a controlled environment where users are encouraged to feel comfortable and learn socialization skills at their own pace. Link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmTXGQ2BhUA&feature=PlayList&p=E048D6F190577DED&index=0&playnext=1
Balancing Collaboration Technologies: Assets and Limitations for ASD Bane? • technical complexity • cost • non-real context • Isolation Boon? • Motivation / enjoyment • Initiative / independence • self actualization • Challenge for caregiver • Bottom Line • effectiveness? • transfer?
Studies using Virtual Reality and Shared Active Surfaces for Autism: Table of Evidence - AACPDM 30
Acknowledgements Laboratory for Innovations in Rehabilitation Technology University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Caesarea-Rothschild Institute Fondation Ida et Avrohom Baruch Israeli Ministry of Health Israeli Ministry of Defense Yad Hanadiv-Keren Rothschild Israeli Foundation for Spinal Cord Injured due to Gunshot Israel Science Foundation Keren Shalem Koniver Foundation Rayne Foundation Autism Speaks European Union FP7 ICT