#1Factors Affecting Climate Effect of the Sun on Earth’s atmosphere: • greenhouse effect -Atmosphere traps heat energy, keeps planet warm. • Global Warming is the when the atmosphere becomes more dense because of pollution. It make the world heat up.
#2. Latitude • During the Earth’s revolution around the sun, the sun’s direct rays fall on the Earth in regular patterns. • Latitude has the greatest effect on a place’s climate.
Section 1Factors Affecting Climate (Wind) Atmospheric pressure and energy distribution: • Low-pressure zones are caused by warm air, which expands and rises. • High-pressure zones are caused by cold air, which is dense and sinks. • Pressure differences cause air flow (wind) and energy distribution around the globe. • Warm air moves through the upper atmosphere until it cools and falls; cold air moves along Earth’s surface until it heats up and rises.
#3Factors Affecting Climate Global winds affect weather and climate: • Pressure differences cause wind. • Winds move heat and cold across the Earth’s surface. • Prevailing winds blow from the same direction most of the time, causing similar weather. • A front occurs when two air masses of widely different temperatures or moisture levels meet.
#4Factors Affecting Climate Oceans affect weather and climate: • Water heats and cools more slowly than land, making coastal areas milder than inland areas. • Ocean currents move heat between the tropics and polar regions, helping to maintain Earth’s energy balance.
#5Weather Factors Effects of mountains and elevation on weather and climate: • Higher you go (elevation), colder it gets. • Mountains cause orographic effect: moist air meets a barrier and is pushed upward, causing cooling, condensation, and precipitation. • Mountainside facing wind is the windward, wetter side; side facing away from wind is the leeward, drier side, called the rain shadow.
Elevation • The temperature of a place depends on its elevation. • For every 1000 feet gained, the temperature drops an average of 3.5 degrees. • For example, Quito is about 9,000 feet above sea level. Even though it is on the equator, it is about 25 degrees cooler than lower areas. • The higher you get the colder it gets, the lower you get the hotter it gets.
Middle Latitude Storms • Middle-latitude storms form when cold dry polar air mixes with moist warm tropical air. Examples include thunderstorms and tornadoes.
Tropical Storms • Tropical storms are usually smaller and lack fronts. Examples include hurricanes and typhoons. • Warm water strengthens a hurricane while cold water and land weaken hurricanes