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Theoretical Foundations of Literacy and Learning. Session 3. EDUC 622. Session 3 Objectives. In Session 3, you will: Review Session 2 Content Participate in a Literacy Warm Up Activity Analyze achievement gap statistics

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    1. Theoretical Foundations of Literacy and Learning Session 3 EDUC 622

    2. Session 3 Objectives In Session 3, you will: Review Session 2 Content Participate in a Literacy Warm Up Activity Analyze achievement gap statistics Discuss the role of federal programs and national reports in literacy environments Examine Ten Evidence-Based Best Practices for Comprehensive Literacy Instruction Analyze and discuss recent research concerning contemporary ideas about literacy and learning and its connection to best practice instruction Participate in Group A’s Best Practice Briefcase Workshop …by discussing the slides and completing all activities and assessments presented in Session 3 PPT. Benedictine Univerisity


    4. SESSION 2 REVIEW EARLY ROOTS BEHAVIORISM EDUC 622 Benedictine Univerisity


    6. SHORT ANSWER SESSION 2 • Rousseau advocated that educators should follow children’s leads regarding what and when they wanted to learn • He argued that learning would be impededif children were forced to learn about information that they were not interested in learning • Examine your teaching style and your curriculum: • What are two relevant examples of how you allow the students in your classroom to “unfold?” Benedictine University

    7. THREADED DISCUSSION #1Slide 48 Review 1. How have early roots theories influenced your teaching methods or curriculum? 2. What classroom examples can you share that deals with the mental discipline theory, associationism, unfoldment theory or structuralism impacted your instruction • In your opinion, are these methods still relevant and would they fit into best practice instruction? Why or why not? • What are the possible drawbacks of using “dated” methods? Benedictine University

    8. THREADED DISCUSSION #2Slide 73 Review Review Charts 1 – 4 • What specific aspects of these charts mirror your own philosophy about instruction? • What aspects conflict with your beliefs or personal experience concerning methods of direct instruction? • Describe your role in your literacy environment • Cite specific examples from the charts regarding direct instruction and explain how you will utilize these ideas in your classroom Benedictine University

    9. LITERACYWARM-UP • The following article are referenced for the activity: • Peterson, S. M. (July 2006). Theories of Learning and Teaching: What Do They Mean for Educators. Atlanta, GA: National Education Association. Benedictine University

    10. PICTURE NOTES Small Group Activity: • Form Small Groups of 2-3 • Each group will receive a large sheet of paper and a set of markers • Skim the article and determine the important ideas from your article reading assignment: • Peterson, S. M. (July 2006). Theories of Learning and Teaching: What Do They Mean for Educators. Atlanta, GA: National Education Association.(NEA Brief) • Create a way to represent your ideas on paper through words, pictures, and diagrams • The thought processes involved in discussing content and deciding how to organize them on the paper are primary. The quality of your artwork is secondary Benedictine Univerisity

    11. PICTURE NOTES DEBRIEF Share your masterpieces! How did putting your thoughts into drawings and representations make you feel? Would you rather draw, write, or speak about your thoughts after reading a text? Explain why Think of a lesson plan or unit where “Picture Notes” would be a great literacy warm-up activity and share it with your small group! How can you use this after-reading activity in your own classroom? Benedictine Univerisity

    12. KNOWLEDGE NOW!Federal programs and national reportsComprehensive literacy instructionAll content cited and directly quoted from Best Practices in Literacy Instruction unless otherwise noted :Gambrell, L. B., & Morrow, L. M. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Fourth Edition. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press. Benedictine University

    13. CHAPTER 1 EDUC 622 Gambrell, L. B., & Morrow, L. M. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Fourth Edition. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press.All material in the following section is directly quoted from Best Practices in Literacy Instruction unless otherwise noted Benedictine Univerisity

    14. Perspectives on Best Practices Students must be literate in order to succeed in school and in the workplace! However, evidence across the past four decades indicates that the achievement has not been equal for all children in American schools Benedictine University

    15. Perspectives on Best Practices There is considerable evidence of a growinggap in reading achievement between: Minority and nonminority students Students from poorer and richer families Students who are English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers Students identified for special education services and those in regular education Benedictine University

    16. ACHIEVEMENT GAP STATISTICS EDUC 622 Benedictine Univerisity

    17. Achievement Gap Statistics Consider the following statistics that further substantiate the achievement gap… Benedictine University

    18. UnequalOpportunities ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE In middle-income neighborhoods the ratio of books per child is 13 to 1, while in low-income neighborhoods the ratio is 1 age-appropriate book for every 300 children (Dickinson &Neuman, 2006) • By age 2, children who are read to regularly by an adult have greater language comprehension, larger vocabularies, and higher cognitive skills than children read to less often (Raikes et al., 2006) Benedictine University

    19. POVERTY (Web Source: Every Child Matters, 2008, In the United States, approximately 13 million children live in poverty Poverty places children at higher risk for a number of problems, including those associated with brain development and social and emotional development Benedictine University

    20. DROPOUTS Benedictine University

    21. Interesting Conclusion The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PISA) concluded: Finding ways to engage students in reading may be one of the most effective ways to leverage social change According to the PISA report, being an enthusiastic and frequent reader was more of an advantage than having well-educated parents in good jobs (Programme for International Student Assessment;PISA,2006;, retrieved August 7, 2010) Benedictine University

    22. FEDERAL AND NATIONAL REPORTS EDUC 622 Benedictine University

    23. Federal Programs and National Reports During the past decade (2000-2010), literacy instruction has continued to be a hot topic in education, in the media, and with politicians at every level of government Federal programs and national reports from the previous decade, such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) and the National Reading Panel (NRP) Report (NICHHD, 2000), continue to influence both assessment and instruction in our schools Benedictine University

    24. Federal Programs and National Reports As we move into the next decade, it is clear that the following initiatives will influence literacy research, policy, and practice: Response to Intervention (RTI) (NASDSE, 2010) Race to the Top (U.S. Department of Education, 2010) Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010) Benedictine University

    25. WAIT...AND RELATELARGE GROUP DISCUSSION How have federal programs and national reports influenced you as an educator currently and in the past? What Federal or National Educational program has had the largest impact on your daily instruction? Do you believe that the federal mandates, programs, and reports will allow us to truly help students to become more literate? Why or why not? Benedictine University

    26. Federal Programs and National Reports To learn more about these programs, please refer to additional information in Session 3 Resource Folder Benedictine University


    28. COMPREHENSIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION • The goal of comprehensive literacy instruction is to ensure that all students achieve their full literacy potential • This instruction should prepare our students to enter adulthood with the skills they will need to participate fully in a democratic society that is part of a global economy • Students need to be able to read and write with purpose, competence, ease, and joy • Comprehensive literacy instruction: • Emphasizes the personal, intellectual, and social nature of literacy learning • Supports the notion that students learn new meanings in response to new experiences rather than simply learning what others have created Benedictine Univerisity

    29. COMPREHENSIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION Thus, comprehensive literacy instruction is in keeping with constructivist learning theory and social learning perspectives that emphasize the development of students’ cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking and decision making Students need and deserve comprehensive literacy instruction that is well informed and based on a broad model of the reading process Benedictine Univerisity

    30. COMPREHENSIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION Is a balanced approach that involves appropriate emphasis on meaning making and skill instruction Incorporates evidence-based best practices to suit the needs of all students in whole-group, small-group, and individualized instruction Builds on the knowledge that students bring to school Acknowledges reciprocity among reading processes (e.g., decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, motivation) and between reading and writing Benedictine Univerisity

    31. THE BENEFITS OF COMPREHENSIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION Recognizes that comprehension is the ultimate goal of literacy instruction Emphasizes meaning construction through open and collaborative literacy tasks and activities that require critical thinking Offers opportunities for students to apply literacy strategies in the context of meaningful tasks for real-world purposes Provides for differentiated assessment and instruction in accordance with the diverse strengths and needs of students (e.g., struggling readers, ELLs) Benedictine Univerisity

    32. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS EDUC 622 Benedictine Univerisity

    33. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS Research on effective teachers reveals the following common themes: Effective Teachers… • Are supported by commitment • Are much like coaches • Incorporate higher-level responses • Provide access to engage students with print, and encourage life-long learners Benedictine Univerisity

    34. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS (Pressley, 2007; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, & Morrow, 2001; Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, & Hampston, 1998) • Researchers who have recently observed and recorded the types of instruction occurring in high-achieving learning environments found that: • Beyond a carefully orchestrated integration of skills and strategies, content, and literature… • Successful classrooms are led by teachers who motivate and support individual students in ways that cannot be prescribed by anyone program, method, or practice Benedictine Univerisity

    35. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS • Teachers are the crucial factor in the classroom • Study after study points to teacher expertise as the criticalvariable in effective reading instruction • Teacher who are knowledgeable and adept at integrating and adjusting various methods, practices, and strategies are more likely to: • Better meet the needs of a particular set of students with a differentiated set of needs • Lead students to higher levels of literacy achievement and engagement Benedictine Univerisity

    36. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS Effective teachers: Work withinandacross grades to coordinate the curriculum in ways that will enhance student growth and development Are supported within a context of strong school and faculty commitment to improving student achievement Are provided ongoing professional development in order for teachers to become aware of research-based practices and share evidence from their classrooms (Frey, Fisher, & Allen, 2009; Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2003) Benedictine Univerisity

    37. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS Effective teachers are much like coaches: Instead of telling students what they must do to become better readers and writers, they use discussionand inquiry to guide students in constructing meaning from text (Allington & Johnston, 2002; Malloy & Gambrell, 2010; Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 2000). Benedictine Univerisity

    38. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS • Effective teachers incorporate higher-level responses to: • Text, both oral and written, and • Emphasize cognitive engagement during literacy activities • Effective Teachers are clear in tying: • Strategy instruction to authentic literacy activities • Meaning centered learning to whole groups, small groups, and individual student learning (Purcell-Gates, Duke, & Martineau, 2007; Taylor et al., 2003) Benedictine Univerisity

    39. TEACHERS AS VISIONARY DECISION MAKERS (Baumann & Duffy, 1997; Cunningham, Cunningham, & Allington, 2002; Gambrell, 1996, 2009; Hiebert & Martin, 2009; Neuman & Celano, 2001; Reutzel & Smith, 2004; Routman, 2003) Effective teachers: • Provideaccess to a variety of books and • The time to engage with print in authentic ways… • encouraging students to be lifelong learners Benedictine Univerisity

    40. IT’S ALL ABOUT VISION • Duffy (2003, 2005) describes the teachers’ ultimate goal as that of: • Inspiring students to be readers and writers • To engage students in “genuinely literate activities” where they are doing something important with literacy • This engagement should reflect the teachers’ instructional vision… • The reason they are passionate about teaching reading and writing Benedictine Univerisity

    41. IT’S ALL ABOUT VISION While vision is not a word you expect to see in a discussion of evidence-based practices, the teacher’s vision of literacy achievementis a crucial factor in ensuring that the goal of improving literacy instruction for all students is met Ensuring that “…children have the opportunity to acquire the level of literacy that allows them full participation in our democratic society depends on a corps of teachers who possess extraordinary minds and hearts”(Calfee, 2005, p. 67) Benedictine Univerisity

    42. WAIT...AND RELATELARGE GROUP DISCUSSION What is your vision as an educator? What aspects of classroom instruction do you pride yourself on including? How do you show your students both your mind and heart? Tip: Remember the answers to this question as you create a formal Vision Statement as part of the Practicum due Session 10! Benedictine University



    45. LEARNING AND TEACHING(Critical Shifts in Education Over the Past 20 Years) All content cited from the following source in the next section of slides: Peterson, S. M. (July 2006). Theories of Learning and Teaching: What Do They Mean for Educators. Atlanta, GA: National Education Association.(NEA Brief) Benedictine Univerisity

    46. CRITICAL SHIFTS IN EDUCATION Over the past 20 years, the United States has been engaged in a national school reform movement focused on enabling all children to achieve high standards Ideas drawn from recent research on learning and teaching have been influential in guiding many of these reform initiatives Several critical shifts have occurred as we move towards best practice in education Benedictine University

    47. THE MOST CRITICAL SHIFT • Perhaps the most critical shift in learning theory during the past 20 years has been a move away from: • The idea of learning as passive absorption of information • This view of learning expects teachers to do most of the talking, and students have been directed to listen • And To • The idea of learning as the active engagement of meaning • This view of learning invites students to participate in hands-on learning through inquiry and reflection Benedictine University

    48. LEARNING IS ACTIVE! Most recent theories of learning view it as an active, constructive process Individuals attempt to make sense of incoming information by: This enables them to transform incoming information into usable knowledge Benedictine University

    49. TAP INTO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Students bring their own ideas or preconceptions to the learning process Sometimes, students’ naïve theories resonate with academic knowledge and teachers can build on them At other times, students start with misconceptions and, unless teachers are aware of and know how to address these common misconceptions, students will not gain an understanding of academic knowledge Benedictine University

    50. ALWAYS CONNECT TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE! Newknowledge always builds on priorknowledge! Therefore, if academic content is to make sense to students, teachers must connect it with students’ background knowledge Benedictine University