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UNIT ONE Theoretical Foundations. CHAPTER ONE Introduction to Organizational Constructs. Preface. According to Modaff & DeWine, organizational life is characterized by what? misunderstandings What are the Textbook Assumptions? Previous course in communication

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unit one theoretical foundations

UNIT ONETheoretical Foundations

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction to Organizational Constructs

preface
Preface
  • According to Modaff & DeWine, organizational life is characterized by what?
    • misunderstandings
  • What are the Textbook Assumptions?
    • Previous course in communication
    • Purpose of course is to familiarize students with the basic elements of the field of organizational communication.
    • Students will cover methodological and philosophical orientations in more depth in an advanced course (COM 525)
preface3
Preface
  • What the textbook is NOT about . . .
    • External organizational communication (“public relations”)
    • Macro-organizational communication (organizational memory, lifespan)
  • What the textbook IS about . . .
    • Internal communication
    • Organizing issues (organizational behavior level)
    • Introduce basic concepts
      • Foundations of the discipline
      • Current state of theory and practice
    • Deal with misunderstandings
    • Central organizing feature of textbook: MISUNDERSTANDINGS
textbook layout part one foundations
Textbook LayoutPart One: Foundations
  • Chapter 1: Introduction (ethics & diversity)
  • Chapter 2: Classical Management Theories (prescriptive)
  • Chapter 3: Human Relations & Human Resource Theories
  • Chapter 4: Systems Theory - Learning Organizations (analytical framework)
  • Chapter 5: Organizational Culture & Critical Theories
  • Chapter 6: The Communicative Organization
    • Misunderstanding will occur - organizations should be prepared.
    • Can misunderstandings be resolved?
    • Does organization need to learn to “live with the issues?”
part two challenges misunderstandings
Part Two: Challenges & Misunderstandings

ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES

  • Chapter 7: Realistic Recruitment
  • Chapter 8: Socialization of Organizational Members
  • Chapter 9: Conflict in the Organization

RELATIONAL CHALLENGES

  • Chapter 10: Supervisor/Subordinate Communication
  • Chapter 11: Peer and Co-worker Communication
  • Chapter 12: Team Communication
  • Chapter 13: Impact of Technology on Communication
chapter one introduction
Chapter One: Introduction

PREVIEW

  • Define the Study and Practice of Organizational Communication
  • Establish the Prevalence of Misunderstandings
  • Discuss the Changing Nature of Organizations
  • Present the Realities of a Diverse Workforce
  • Identify Ethical Organizational Frameworks
  • Introduction of Three Important Constructs
    • Organizational Identification
    • Job Satisfaction
    • Communication Satisfaction
organizational communication defined
Organizational CommunicationDEFINED
  • Organizational Communication Definitions - Handout
  • “Communication is the basis for the way in which an organization functions”
  • Communication plays a critical role in most every aspect of organizational life
  • A business is a group of people organized around a common goal
  • Organization - Greek origins
    • Organon - “tool” or “instrument”
    • Communication is both the means by which the tool or instrument (the organization) is created and sustained and the prime coordinating mechanism for activity designed to attain personal and organizational goals.
organizational communication defined8
Organizational CommunicationDEFINED
  • “…the process of creating, exchanging, interpreting (correctly or incorrectly), and storing messages within a system of human interrelationships.”
  • “…the exchange of oral, nonverbal, and written messages within (and across the boundaries of) a system of interrelated and interdependent people working to accomplish common tasks and goals within an organization.”
  • MESSAGE-CENTERED DEFINITION
messages
Messages
  • “…nonrandom verbal symbolizations.”
  • “…a use of language (written or spoken) that the recipient interprets as having been created intentionally.”
assumptions and features of organizational communication
Assumptions and Features of Organizational Communication
  • Communication is central to the existence of the organization
  • Organizational communication is a complex process (creating, exchanging, interpreting, and storing messages)
  • Misunderstandings occur
sample research topics in organizational communication
Sample Research Topics in Organizational Communication
  • Information Dissemination / Message Flow
  • Relationship Creation, Maintenance, and Termination
  • Process of Organizing
  • Message Privilege and Power
  • Optimal Information (overload, underload)
  • Effective Channels
  • Impact of Technology
  • Workplace Democracy
  • Influence of Organizational Structure
  • Team Interaction
  • Organizational Culture
common themes in organizational communication
Common Themes in Organizational Communication
  • “The use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols, constitutes our disciplinary foundation . . . A concern with collective action, agency, messages, symbols, and discourse.”

Mumby & Stohl

  • How messages are sent and understood through the use of language, forms the basis of communication in general and organizational communication specifically.
organizational communication what s in it for you
Organizational Communication: What’s in it for You?
  • Better equipped to address contemporary workplace issues.
    • Development of a temporary workforce
    • Implementation of teams
    • Adoption of new technologies
    • Multiculturalism
  • Trained to focus on the complex and collaborative nature of communicating, organizing and knowing.
organizational communication what s in it for you14
Organizational Communication: What’s in it for You?
  • More articulate about ideas.
  • Understand the task of organizing individuals, groups, projects, and thoughts.
  • Knowing/Learning how to learn.
prevalence of misunderstandings
Prevalence of Misunderstandings
  • Paradigms
  • More levels of hierarchy
  • More work teams with more members
  • Cultural, age, sex, gender, religious, and value differences
  • Power struggles
  • Sub- and counter organizational cultures
  • Competition for scarce resources
  • Impersonal communication media
misunderstandings
Misunderstandings

“Instances in which people who are communicating don’t share meanings as well as situations in which features of organizational life serve to impinge upon the efficient and effective functioning of organizational members.”

Highlights the central nature of communication.

Case study example: page 7.

changing nature of organizations
Changing Nature of Organizations

Shift from . . .

  • hierarchical (tall) to decentralized (flat) structures
  • climate of authority (control) to climate of coaching (support through performance feedback)
  • analog to digital (computerized information technology)
  • regional or national competition to global competition
realities of diverse workforce
Realities of Diverse Workforce
  • “Diversity in the workplace encompasses a variety of personal and social bases of identity, including race-ethnicity, gender, age, socio-economic status, and country of origin.”

Brenda Allen

  • Diversity must be seen as a positive characteristic of the work environment
ethical frameworks and organizational communication
Ethical Frameworks and Organizational Communication
  • Must be defined within the unique culture of a particular organizational environment. (???)
  • “There is something inherently present in any modern organization that facilitates unethical or immoral conduct”

W. Charles Redding

kreps ethical guidelines
Kreps’ Ethical Guidelines
  • Organization members should not intentionally deceive one another. (Trust)
  • Organization members’ communication should not purposely harm any other organization member or members of the organization’s relevant environment. (Do No Harm)
  • Organization members should be treated justly (Justice)
cheney tompkins four guidelines for ethical behavior
Cheney & TompkinsFour Guidelines for Ethical Behavior
  • Guardedness - critically assess messages
  • Accessibility - be open to new ideas
  • Nonviolence - consider multiple options
  • Empathy - genuinely listen and respect
three important constructs
Three Important Constructs
  • Organizational Identification(process & product)
    • An active process by which individuals link themselves to elements (people, policies, products, services, customers, values) in the social scene.
    • Involves an individual’s sense of membership in and connection with an organization.
  • Job Satisfaction
    • The degree to which employees feel fulfilled by their job and related experiences.
    • A pleasurable or positive emotional state from the appraisal of one’s job or experiences
    • Linked to absenteeism and turnover
  • Communication Satisfaction
    • The degree to which employees feel that communication is appropriate and satisfies their need for information and work relationships
communication satisfaction csq
Communication Satisfaction (CSQ)
  • “Overall degree of satisfaction an employee perceived in his [sic] total communication environment.”
  • Eight Factors concerned with communication information, relationships, channels, and climate
    • Communication Climate
    • Relationship to Superiors
    • Organizational Integration
    • Media Quality
    • Horizontal and Informal Communication
    • Organizational Perspective
    • Relationship with Subordinates
    • Personal Feedback
  • Communication satisfaction is often considered the “sum” of an individual’s satsifaction with the above dimensions.
summary
Summary
  • Define the Study and Practice of Organizational Communication
  • Establish the Prevalence of Misunderstandings
  • Discuss the Changing Nature of Organizations
  • Present the Realities of a Diverse Workforce
  • Identify Ethical Organizational Frameworks
  • Introduction of Three Important Constructs
    • Organizational Identification
    • Job Satisfaction
    • Communication Satisfaction
summary26
Summary
  • Organizational communication is the process of creating, exchanging, interpreting (correctly or incorrectly), and storing messages within a system of human interrelationships.
  • The study of organizational communication helps people understand and appreciate communication as the central process in the organization.
  • Goal is to reduce misunderstandings through communication.
  • For Thursday, Read Chapter 2 (Classical Theories of Organizations)
    • Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
    • Fayol’s Administrative Theory
    • Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy