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HEARING. 3. 4. SOUND. SOUND: PITCH. Low Pitch. High Pitch. 1 Sec. Sound travels 343 m per second (1,125 ft/s). 1 Hertz (Hz) = Number of Waves that Pass a Point in 1 sec. SOUND: HEARING RANGE. (16Hz). Human Hearing Range: __________ : ___________. SOUND: VOLUME. Low Volume. ‘Hoo Hoo’.

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slide3

SOUND: PITCH

Low Pitch

High Pitch

1 Sec

Sound travels 343 m per second (1,125 ft/s)

1 Hertz (Hz) = Number of Waves that Pass a Point in 1 sec

slide4

SOUND: HEARING RANGE

(16Hz)

Human Hearing Range: __________ : ___________

slide5

SOUND: VOLUME

Low Volume

‘Hoo Hoo’

High Volume

‘Hoo Hoo’

slide6

External Ear:

Auricular Feathers and Ear Opening

Fig. 1-5 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide7

5

Ear Opening

2

1

slide8

Three Regions of Ear:

(External Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear)

Fig. 4-48 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide10

Middle Ear: Columella

Humans

Fig. 7-4 in Gill 2007

slide12

Inner Ear: Cochlea, Vestibule, Semicircular Canals

(Vestibular Window = Oval Window; Cochlear Window = Round Window)

Fig. 4-49 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide14

Cochlea:

Vestibular Canal, Tympanic Canal, Cochlear Duct

Fig. 4-50 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide15

Cochlear Duct:

Tectorial Membrane, Basilar Papilla, Hair Cells

slide16

Sound Perception: Pitch

Fig. 4-51 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide17

Sound Perception: Loudness

Fig. 4-51 in Podulka et al. 2007

slide19

Hearing: Transmission to Brain

Cranial Nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear Nerve

Proctor and Lynch 1993,

p. 243

Fig. 4-50 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide20

Hearing Ability: Frequency

  • Humans: (16) 20 – 20,000 vibrations per sec
  • (Hertz)
  • Birds: 40 – 29,000 vibrations per sec
  • (Hertz)

(Typically, 1,000 – 5,000 Hertz)

slide23

Hearing Ability: Echolocation

Oilbirds

Edible-Nest Swiftlets

2-10 kH

2-10 kH

slide24

Pinpointing Sound Location

Fig. 4-47 in Podulka et al. 2004

Fig. 7-6 in Gill 2007

slide25

Avian Hearing

SOUND

Pitch

Wavelength

Frequency

Amplitude

Hertz

Ultrasound

Infrasound

INNER EAR

Vestibular Window (Oval Window)

Semicircular Canals

Vestibule

Cochlea

Bony Labyrinth

Membranous Labyrinth

Perilymph

Endolymph

Vestibular Canal

Tympanic Canal

Cochlear Duct

Tectorial Membrane

Basilar Papillae

Hair Cells

Cochlear Window (Round Window)

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

OUTER EAR

Auricular Feathers

Ear Opening

Tympanic Membrane

MIDDLE EAR

Columella

Eustachian Tube

slide27

Equilibrium: Gravity

(Vestibule, Utriculus, Sacculus,

Statoconia, Gelatinous Material, Hair Cells)

Fig. 4-49 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide28

Equilibrium: Movement

(Semicircular Canals, Ampulla, Gelatinous Material, Hair Cells)

slide29

Avian Equilibrium

GRAVITY PERCEPTION

Vestibule

Utriculus

Sacculus

Statoconia

Gelatinous Material

Hair Cells

MOVEMENT PERCEPTION

Semicircular Canals

Ampulla

Gelatinous Material

Hair Cells

slide31

Olfaction (Smell)

Leach’s Storm Petrel

Fulmar

slide32

Olfaction (Smell)

Leach’s Storm Petrel

slide35

Range of Olfactory Bulb Size

Fig. 4-55 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide37

TASTE

Fig. 4-56 in Podulka et al. 2004

slide38

13

12

14

slide41

MECHANORECEPTION (TOUCH)

Nerve Endings

(“Corpuscles”)

15

slide43

1 http://www.owlpages.com/pictures/articles-Owl+Physiology-Hearing-2.jpg

2 http://www.shawcreekbirdsupply.com/barn_owl.jpg

3 http://www.kahle.org/tweeters/images/Bewicks_Wren.jpg

4 http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/Ecology/Birds/Red-winged%

20Blackbird/behavi19.jpg

5 http://www.pycomall.com/images/P/01-50.jpg

6 http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=14303&rendTypeId=4

7 http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=9157&rendTypeId=4

8 http://scienceblogs.com/clock/upload/2007/02/a2%20OILBIRD.jpg

9 http://www.wildsound-filmmaking-feedback-events.com/images/swiflet.jpg

slide44

10 http://www.pegsteunenberg.com/images/peregrine_falcon_01.jpg

11 http://whatbird.wbu.com/img/4/274/image.aspx?x=250

12 http://steveandamysly.tannerworld.com/databank/image_fantagrape1.jpg

13 http://img.alibaba.com/photo/11786246/Chewing_Gum.jpg

14 http://www.calliebowdish.com/Birds/SnowGeese112405OM_2611.jpg

15 http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Free_nerve_endings.jpg

16 http://www.birdwatching-bliss.com/images/feathers.jpg