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HEARING. 3. 4. SOUND. SOUND: PITCH. Low Pitch. High Pitch. 1 Sec. Sound travels 343 m per second (1,125 ft/s). 1 Hertz (Hz) = Number of Waves that Pass a Point in 1 sec. SOUND: HEARING RANGE. (16Hz). Human Hearing Range: __________ : ___________. SOUND: VOLUME. Low Volume. ‘Hoo Hoo’.

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    1. HEARING 3 4

    2. SOUND

    3. SOUND: PITCH Low Pitch High Pitch 1 Sec Sound travels 343 m per second (1,125 ft/s) 1 Hertz (Hz) = Number of Waves that Pass a Point in 1 sec

    4. SOUND: HEARING RANGE (16Hz) Human Hearing Range: __________ : ___________

    5. SOUND: VOLUME Low Volume ‘Hoo Hoo’ High Volume ‘Hoo Hoo’

    6. External Ear: Auricular Feathers and Ear Opening Fig. 1-5 in Podulka et al. 2004

    7. 5 Ear Opening 2 1

    8. Three Regions of Ear: (External Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear) Fig. 4-48 in Podulka et al. 2004

    9. External Ear: Tympanic Membrane

    10. Middle Ear: Columella Humans Fig. 7-4 in Gill 2007

    11. Middle Ear: Eustachian Tube (= Auditory Tube)

    12. Inner Ear: Cochlea, Vestibule, Semicircular Canals (Vestibular Window = Oval Window; Cochlear Window = Round Window) Fig. 4-49 in Podulka et al. 2004

    13. Inner Ear: Bony Labyrinth, Membranous Labyrinth (Perilymph, Endolymph)

    14. Cochlea: Vestibular Canal, Tympanic Canal, Cochlear Duct Fig. 4-50 in Podulka et al. 2004

    15. Cochlear Duct: Tectorial Membrane, Basilar Papilla, Hair Cells

    16. Sound Perception: Pitch Fig. 4-51 in Podulka et al. 2004

    17. Sound Perception: Loudness Fig. 4-51 in Podulka et al. 2007

    18. Cochlea: Cochlear Window (= Round Window)

    19. Hearing: Transmission to Brain Cranial Nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear Nerve Proctor and Lynch 1993, p. 243 Fig. 4-50 in Podulka et al. 2004

    20. Hearing Ability: Frequency • Humans: (16) 20 – 20,000 vibrations per sec • (Hertz) • Birds: 40 – 29,000 vibrations per sec • (Hertz) (Typically, 1,000 – 5,000 Hertz)

    21. Hearing Ability: Frequency X Intensity Fig. 7-5 in Gill 2007

    22. Echolocation

    23. Hearing Ability: Echolocation Oilbirds Edible-Nest Swiftlets 2-10 kH 2-10 kH

    24. Pinpointing Sound Location Fig. 4-47 in Podulka et al. 2004 Fig. 7-6 in Gill 2007

    25. Avian Hearing SOUND Pitch Wavelength Frequency Amplitude Hertz Ultrasound Infrasound INNER EAR Vestibular Window (Oval Window) Semicircular Canals Vestibule Cochlea Bony Labyrinth Membranous Labyrinth Perilymph Endolymph Vestibular Canal Tympanic Canal Cochlear Duct Tectorial Membrane Basilar Papillae Hair Cells Cochlear Window (Round Window) Vestibulocochlear Nerve OUTER EAR Auricular Feathers Ear Opening Tympanic Membrane MIDDLE EAR Columella Eustachian Tube

    26. EQUILIBRIUM 11 10

    27. Equilibrium: Gravity (Vestibule, Utriculus, Sacculus, Statoconia, Gelatinous Material, Hair Cells) Fig. 4-49 in Podulka et al. 2004

    28. Equilibrium: Movement (Semicircular Canals, Ampulla, Gelatinous Material, Hair Cells)

    29. Avian Equilibrium GRAVITY PERCEPTION Vestibule Utriculus Sacculus Statoconia Gelatinous Material Hair Cells MOVEMENT PERCEPTION Semicircular Canals Ampulla Gelatinous Material Hair Cells

    30. Olfaction (Smell)

    31. Olfaction (Smell) Leach’s Storm Petrel Fulmar

    32. Olfaction (Smell) Leach’s Storm Petrel

    33. Crested Auklet

    34. Olfaction: Olfactory Epithelium

    35. Range of Olfactory Bulb Size Fig. 4-55 in Podulka et al. 2004

    36. Taste

    37. TASTE Fig. 4-56 in Podulka et al. 2004

    38. 13 12 14

    39. MECHANORECEPTION (TOUCH)

    40. Skin Nerve Endings

    41. MECHANORECEPTION (TOUCH) Nerve Endings (“Corpuscles”) 15

    42. Mechanoreception: Herbst Corpuscles Fig. 7-7 in Gill 2007

    43. 1 http://www.owlpages.com/pictures/articles-Owl+Physiology-Hearing-2.jpg 2 http://www.shawcreekbirdsupply.com/barn_owl.jpg 3 http://www.kahle.org/tweeters/images/Bewicks_Wren.jpg 4 http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/Ecology/Birds/Red-winged% 20Blackbird/behavi19.jpg 5 http://www.pycomall.com/images/P/01-50.jpg 6 http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=14303&rendTypeId=4 7 http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=9157&rendTypeId=4 8 http://scienceblogs.com/clock/upload/2007/02/a2%20OILBIRD.jpg 9 http://www.wildsound-filmmaking-feedback-events.com/images/swiflet.jpg

    44. 10 http://www.pegsteunenberg.com/images/peregrine_falcon_01.jpg 11 http://whatbird.wbu.com/img/4/274/image.aspx?x=250 12 http://steveandamysly.tannerworld.com/databank/image_fantagrape1.jpg 13 http://img.alibaba.com/photo/11786246/Chewing_Gum.jpg 14 http://www.calliebowdish.com/Birds/SnowGeese112405OM_2611.jpg 15 http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Free_nerve_endings.jpg 16 http://www.birdwatching-bliss.com/images/feathers.jpg