Hearing. Chapter 12 Nannette Mentzer. Hearing. Defining Sound The Hearing System Hearing Loss Identification of Hearing Loss Hearing Screening and Testing Degrees of Hearing Loss Treatment of Middle Ear Disease Treatment of Hearing Loss Early Intervention Amplification
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When we hear sound we are interpreting a pattern of vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.
The ear is divided into a peripheral auditory mechanism, which starts at the outer ear and ends at the auditory nerve. The central auditory system extends the auditory nerve to the brain. The defect in the peripheral system would indicate a hearing loss.
Auricle and the ear canal
Ear canal, eardrum (tympanic membrane), stapes, malleus, and incus (the ossicles), Eustachian tube, the oval window,
The vestibular system and the cochlea
Dysfunction of the middle or external ear
dysfunction of the auditory nerve or the cochlea
Mixed hearing loss
there are conductive and sensorineural components to the hearing loss
Treacher Collins Syndrome
Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18
Not making reduplicated sounds
A baby does not awaken by loud noises
Not following a verbal direction
According to the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing the “risk” factors are:
infections such as rubella and syphilis
congenital malformations of the head and neck
hyperbilirubinemia requiring exchange transfusions
Formal hearing tests tell whether there is a hearing loss, differentiate between conductive and sensorineural losses, determine the degree of the loss, estimate how speech speech sounds can be discriminated
Children need to be linked up with an interdisciplinary, comprehensive early intervention program.
Children should be aided with a hearing aid that works best for them. Assistive listening devices should be explored as well as the hearing aid when the child is included in the classroom.
Cochlear implants should be considered for children that do not benefit from amplification.