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The Five Kingdoms and the Binomial System of Nomenclature. Fred Searcy Biology. Why Study Evolution?. Understand relationship of one organism to another Taxonomy Science or arranging and naming life forms into some order Two types of taxonomic systems Artificial Natural.

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why study evolution
Why Study Evolution?
  • Understand relationship of one organism to another
  • Taxonomy
    • Science or arranging and naming life forms into some order
  • Two types of taxonomic systems
    • Artificial
    • Natural
artificial vs natural
Artificial vs Natural
  • Artifical
    • Gross morphological and anatomical characteristics
  • Natural
    • Gross morphological and anatomical characteristics as wells as
    • Evolutionary history utilizing
      • Biochemical analysis
      • DNA analysis
system of binomial nomenclature
System of Binomial Nomenclature
  • John Ray (1628-1705) Zoologist
  • Both plant and animal traits
system of binomial nomenclature1
System of Binomial Nomenclature
  • Carl von Linné (1707-1778)
  • Common names
  • Genus and species
    • e.g.Canis domesticus
major taxa
Major Taxa
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
  • Kingdom - Animalia
  • Phylum - Chordata
  • Class - Mammalia
  • Order - Primates
  • Family - Hominideae
  • Genus - Homo (Homo)
  • Species - sapiens (sapiens)
  • Subspecies - sapiens
five kingdoms
Five Kingdoms
  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Protista
  • Monera
kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia
  • Eukaryotic
  • multicellular
  • heterotrophic
  • no cell walls
kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • Cell walls composed of cellulose
kingdom fungi mushrooms and toadstools
Kingdom Fungi(Mushrooms and Toadstools)
  • Eukaryotic
  • Unicellular or multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Cell walls composed of chitin
kingdom protista amoeba euglena paramecium
Kingdom Protista(Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium)
  • Eukaryotic
  • Unicellular or colonial
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Cell wall may or may not be present
kingdom monera bacteria cyanobacteria
Kingdom Monera(bacteria, cyanobacteria)
  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Cell wall composed of murein
early earth and the origin of life
Early Earth and the Origin of Life
  • Geology and biology are intimately intertwined
    • formation and breakup of Pangaea has significantly affected diversity
    • evolution of photosynthetic organisms to release oxygen has affected atmosphere
    • humans have had significant effect on the planet
early earth
Early Earth
  • Gaia hypothesis (earth goddess) assumes biotic and abiotic together make up an interlocked ecosystem
    • proposed by Lovelock and Margulis
  • Key junctures in evolution have punctuated history of biological diversity
  • Earth history and biological history have been episodic
origin of life
Origin of Life
  • Our picture of evolution of life begins with the simple and moves (basically) toward the complex
  • Problem was lack of fossils in Precambrian during Darwin’s time
  • Today, evidence suggest life evolved around 3.5-4.0 billion years ago (earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago)
origin of life1
Origin of Life
  • Spontaneous generation
  • A. I. Oparin (Russia) and J.B.S. Haldane (England) 1920’s theorized earth’s primitive conditions favored chemical synthesis of organic compounds
earth s early atmosphere
Earth’s Early Atmosphere
  • No oxygen (no plants for photosynthesis)
    • strong oxidizing atmosphere (oxygen) not conducive to spontaneous synthesis or organics
  • reducing atmosphere
  • lightning
  • uv radiation
stanley miller and harold urey 1953
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey1953
  • Early atmosphere theorized to have H2O, H2, CH4, and NH3
  • abiotic synthesis of organic molecules, including amino acids
  • today, we say CO, CO2, and N2
  • all 20 amino acids, several sugars, lipids, purine and pyrimidine bases, and ATP have been synthesized.
  • Aggregates of abiotic molecules not capable of reproduction but can maintain internal chemical environment different from surroundings; exhibits excitability, metabolism
  • produced spontaneously from organic compounds
  • Proteinoids that self-assemble into tiny droplets called microspheres
  • undergo osmotic swelling and shrinking
  • store energy via membrane potential
  • Form spontaneously when organic ingredients include certain lipids
  • organize into a bilayer, much like cell membrane
  • Colloidal droplets that form when a solution of
    • polypeptides
    • nucleic acids
    • polysaccharides is shaken
  • add enzymes, these are taken in by coacervates
  • they function as miniature chemical factories
origin of genetic information
Origin of Genetic Information
  • From protobionts
  • splitting of protobionts
  • DNA or RNA world?
  • RNA self-replication?
  • Ribozymes
    • remove introns from RNA, catalyze the synthesis of new RNA (autocatalytic)
the case for rna
The Case for RNA
  • RNA single stranded, DNA double stranded
  • RNA can assume a variety of specific 3-dimensional shapes (thus it has genotype)
  • RNA molecules of certain base sequences are more stable and replicate faster with fewer errors than other RNA sequences
  • Some organic compounds could reach earth from space via meteorites and comets
  • Rock formations similar to layered mats constructed by colonies of bacteria and cyanobacteria today in salt marshes
  • contain fossils resembling spherical and filamentous prokaryotes