Unit 6: Asia SS7H3a Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam.
SS7H3: The student will analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia leading to the 21st century. Agenda: Independence in Vietnam Essential Question: Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam. Warm Up: 1. What is the relative location of Vietnam? 2. Who are it’s closest neighbors? 3..Define nationalism (CRCT Prep p. 187).
Independence for Indochina (Vietnam) • Vietnam was another Southeastern Asian country controlled by a European country. • Indochina is made up of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. • The French controlled the colony known as Indochina I n the early 1900s • Later this area became known as the modern country of Vietnam. • During European rule this area was known as French Indochina.
The French wanted Indochina because: • seaports • rich source of agricultural products • natural resources • provided labor that they needed.
Nationalism • Nationalism was a factor in the area known as French Indochina because: • The people who lived there had worked hard to maintain independence from China. • They saw themselves as a separate people among the many groups on Southeast Asia. • The nationalist energy was directed at the French colonial rulers. They felt that the French owed them.
The French government didn’t feel that Indochina was ready for self-rule, but they did give them some very limited control. • The French also felt that if they left their colonies, then another imperialist nation would simply move in and claim control.
Ho Chi Minh • A young man, Ho Chin, began working for Vietnameseindependence from the French. • He thought the Communist Party might be the best route to take because the communists were outspoken critics of European colonialism. • In the 1930s, he organized an Indochinese Communist Party that began to stage protests against French rule. • His efforts landed his followers in jail and he fled the country to avoid a death penalty.
Independence for Indochina • During WWII, the Japanese moved in and controlled this region, as well as, much of the rest of Southeast Asia. • Ho Chi Minh hoped this would mean the end of French rule, and he helped begin a new group, the Vietminh League. • This group’s goal was Vietnamese independence. • However when the Japanese were defeated at the end of WWII, the French regained control of “French Indochina”.
After WWII • The quest for independence from France was rekindled. The difference was that this time a nationalistmovement had already begun. • On September 2, 1945 Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam’s independence. • The French did not recognize this independence though, and instead went to war with the Vietnamese.
Independence for Indochina • For the next nine years, Ho Chi Minh and his Vietminh League fought with the French colonial forces. • Guerilla Warfare: nontraditional military tactics by small groups involving surprise attack • The Communist guerillas under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh finally defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu on May 7, 1954.
Independence for Indochina • The Vietnamese had fought the French for independence. However after their independence was won, a civil war then broke out between northern and southern Vietnam over what type of government would rule the country… Communism or Democracy?
Geneva Conference • At the Geneva Conference in 1954 to end French colonial rule, the United States became alarmed at the prospect (idea) of Ho Chi Minh ruling Vietnam. • He was a communist, rather than a national leader and the United States feared that a communist Vietnam would lead other countries becoming communist as well. This concern is called the Domino Theory. This is the idea that when one or a few countries “fall” to communism, like dominoes in a row, the rest in the area would fall also.
A Land Divided • The United States used its influence to temporarily divide Vietnam into two parts. Ho Chi Minh was in charge of the north and the United States was in charge of the south. • The idea was to stabilize the country, and then let the people vote on what sort of government they wanted. • The United States hoped they could find someone to support as a democratic alternative to Ho Chi Minh so the country could be reunited as a democracy rather than a communist state. • This conference began the United States’ long involvement in the politics of Vietnam.
Ticket Out the Door: • Did the United States have a right to become involved in the politics in Vietnam? • Support your opinion with 3 reasons.