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Chapter 4. Organization and Regulation of Body Systems. Points to Ponder. What is a tissue? Organ? Organ system? What are the 4 main types of tissue? What do these tissues look like, how do they function and where are they found? What is the integumentary system?

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chapter 4
Chapter 4

Organization and Regulation of Body Systems

points to ponder
Points to Ponder
  • What is a tissue? Organ? Organ system?
  • What are the 4 main types of tissue?
  • What do these tissues look like, how do they function and where are they found?
  • What is the integumentary system?
  • How can you prevent skin cancer?
  • What is homeostasis and how is it maintained?
what is a tissue

4.1 Types of tissues

What is a tissue?
  • A collection of cells of the same type that perform a common function
  • There are 4 major tissue types in the body:
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Epithelial
the four tissues of the body
The four tissues of the Body
  • Epithelial Tissue: “covering”
    • Covers exposed surfaces
    • Lines internal passageways
    • Forms glands
  • Connective Tissue: “support”
    • Fills internal spaces
    • Provides structure and strength to support other tissues
    • Transports materials
    • Stores energy
the four tissues of the body1
The four tissues of the Body
  • Muscle Tissue: “movement”
    • Specialized for contraction
    • Skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and walls of hollow organs
  • Neural Tissue: “control”
    • Carries electrical signals from 1 part of the body to another
1 connective tissue

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

1. Connective tissue
  • Binds and supports parts of the body
  • All have specialized cells, ground substance and protein fibers
  • Ground substance is noncellular and ranges from solid to fluid
    • prevents microbe penetration
  • The ground substance and proteins fibers together make up the matrix of the tissue
  • There are three main types of connective tissue: A. fibrous , B. supportive and C. fluid
1 connective tissue1
1. Connective Tissue

Protein Fiber types:

1. Collagen fibers: collagen protein

-resists force

2. Reticular fibers: collagen protein

-branchy, forms framework

-framework of an organ

3. Elastic fibers: elastin protein

-wavy, flexible

- Designed to stretch

Figure 4–8

3 main types of connective tissue
A. Fibrous

B. Supportive

C. Fluid

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

3 main types of connective tissue
categories of connective tissue proper
Categories of Connective Tissue Proper
  • Loose connective tissue:
    • more ground substance, less fibers
    • e.g., fat (adipose tissue)
  • Dense connective tissue:
    • more fibers, less ground substance
    • e.g., tendons
loose connective tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
  • Highly vascularized
  • Functions:
    • Fill space
    • Cushion & support tissues
    • Store fat
    • Feed epithelial layers
  • Three types:
    • Areolar CT
    • Adipose Tissue
    • Reticular Tissue
dense connective tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
  • Poorly vascularized
  • Mostly fibers, little ground substance
  • Only fibroblasts
  • Location:
    • tendons (muscle to bone)
    • ligaments (bone to bone)
    • muscle coverings
  • Function:

- high strength attachment

- stabilize positions

b supportive connective tissues
B. Supportive Connective Tissues
  • Strong framework and few cells
  • Function: support and shape
  • Mature cells in lacunae
  • Two types:

1. Cartilage:

      • gel-type ground substance
      • for shock absorption and protection

2. Bone:

      • calcified (made rigid by calcium salts, minerals)
      • for weight support
b supportive connective tissue cartilage

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

B. Supportive connective tissue: Cartilage
  • Cells are in chambers called lacunae
  • Matrix is solid but flexible
  • 3 types are distinguished by types of fibers
    • Hyaline cartilage – fine collagen fibers

Location: Nose, ends of long bones and fetal skeleton

    • Elastic cartilage – more elastic fibers than cartilage fibers

Location: Outer ear

    • Fibrocartilage – strong collagen fibers

Location: Disks between vertebrae

hyaline cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage 

Elastic Cartilage

Fibro Cartilage 

b supportive connective tissue bone
B. Supportive connective tissue: Bone
  • Highly vascularized
  • Little ground substance
  • Matrix
    • solid and rigid that is made of collagen and calcium salts
  • Cells: Osteocytes
    • Located in chambers called lacunae arranged around central canals within matrix
    • Connected by cytoplasmic extensions that extend through canaliculi
      • Canaliculi: excess blood supply
    • Canaliculi necessary for nutrient and waste exchange, no diffusion through calcium
b structures of bone

Canaliculi

Osteocytes

in lacunae

PERIOSTEUM

Fibrous

layer

Blood

vessels

Cellular

layer

Central canal

Matrix

LM X 362

B. Structures of Bone
  • Osteocytes
    • Connected by cytoplasmic extensions that extend through canaliculi (small channels through matrix)
    • Canaliculi necessary for nutrient and waste exchange

Figure 4–15

b supportive connective tissue bone1

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

B. Supportive connective tissue:Bone
  • Function:
    • Support & Protection
    • Levers for movement
    • Storage of minerals
    • Compact – made of repeating circular units called osteons which contain the hard matrix and living cells and blood vessels Location: Shafts of long bone
    • Spongy – an open, latticework with irregular spaces

Location: Ends of long bones

c fluid connective tissue blood
Made of a fluid matrix called plasma and cellular componentsthat are called formed elements

Function:

- transport nutrients, wastes and defense cells throughout the body

3 formed elements:

Red blood cells – cellsthat carry oxygen

White blood cells – cells that fight infection

Platelets – pieces ofcells that clot blood

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

C. Fluid connective tissue: Blood
formed elements of blood
Formed Elements of Blood
  • Erythrocytes (RBCs): carry oxygen
  • Leukocytes (WBCs): defense
    • Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes (B and T cells), Monocytes (Macrophages)
  • Platelets: carry clotting factors

Figure 4–12

c fluid connective tissue lymph

4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports

C. Fluid connective tissue: Lymph
  • Matrix is a fluid called lymph
  • White blood cells congregate in this tissue
  • Location:
    • contained in lymphatic vessels
  • Function:
    • purify and return fluid to blood
2 muscle tissue

4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body

2. Muscle tissue
  • Allows for movement in the body
  • Made of muscle fibers/cells and protein fibers called actin and myosin
  • There are 3 types of muscle tissue in humans:

A. Skeletal

B. Smooth

C. Cardiac

a muscle tissue skeletal
Appearance:

long, cylindrical cells, multiple nuclei, striated fibers

Location:

attached to bone for movement

Nature:

voluntary movement

4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body

A. Muscle tissue - Skeletal
b muscle tissue cardiac
Appearance:

branched cells with a single nucleus, striations with darker striations called intercalated disks between cells

Location: heart

Nature:

involuntary movement

4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body

B. Muscle tissue – Cardiac
c muscle tissue smooth
Appearance:

spindle-shaped cell with one nucleus, lack striations

Location:

walls of hollow organs and vessels

Nature:

involuntary movement

4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body

C. Muscle tissue - Smooth
3 nervous tissue

4.4 Nervous tissue communicates

3. Nervous tissue
  • Function
    • Allows for communication between cells through sensory input, integration of data and motor output
  • Location:
    • Most in brain and spinal cord: Central Nervous System
    • 2% in Peripheral Nervous System
  • Made of 2 major cell types:

A. Neurons

B. Neuroglia

a nervous tissue neurons
Made of dendrites, a cell body and an axon

Dendrites carry information toward the cell body

Axons carry information towards a cell body

4.4 Nervous tissue communicates

A. Nervous tissue - neurons
cell parts of a neuron
Cell Parts of a Neuron
  • Cell body:
    • contains the nucleus and nucleolus
  • Dendrites:
    • short branches extending from the cell body
    • receive incoming signals
  • Axon (nerve fiber):
    • long, thin extension of the cell body
    • carries outgoing electrical signals to their destination
a nervous tissue neuroglia
A collection of cells that support and nourish neurons

Outnumber neurons 9:1

Examples are oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia

4.4 Nervous tissue communicates

A. Nervous tissue - neuroglia
4 epithelial tissue

4.5 Epithelial tissue protects

4. Epithelial tissue
  • A groups of cells that form a tight, continuous network
  • Lines body cavities, covers body surfaces and found in glands
  • Cells are anchored by a basement membrane

on one side and free on the other side

  • Named after the appearance of cell layers and the shape of the cells
  • There is transitional epithelium that changes in appearance in response to tension
free surface and attached surface
Free Surface and Attached Surface

1. Apical Surface:exposed to environment, may have:

  • Microvilli: absorption or secretion
  • Cilla: fluid movement

2. Basolateral Surface:attachmenttoneighboring cells via intercellular connections

Figure 4–1

classes of epithelia
Classes of Epithelia
  • Based on shape and layers
  • Shape: (all are hexagonal from the top)
    • Squamous: flat, disc shaped nucleus
    • Cuboidal: cube or square, center round nucleus
    • Columnar: tall, basal oval nucleus

Table 4–1

layers
Layers
  • Simple epithelium:
    • single layer of cells
    • Function:
      • absorption, secretion, filtration
  • Stratified epithelium:
    • 2 or more layers of cells
    • Function:
      • Protection

**In stratified, name for apical cell shape**

how do we name epithelial tissue

4.5 Epithelial tissue protects

How do we name epithelial tissue?
  • Number of cell layers:
    • Simple: one layer of cells
    • Stratified: more than one layer of cells
    • Pseudostratified: appears to have layers but only has one layer
  • Shape of cell:
    • Cuboidal: cube-shaped
    • Columnar: column-shaped
    • Squamous: flattened
how are cells connected within a tissue

4.6 Cell junction types

How are cells connected within a tissue?
  • Tight junctions – proteins join and form an impermeable barrier between plasma membranes in a zipper-like fashion
    • Prevents passage of water and solutes
  • Adhesion junctions – cytoskeletal fibers join between cells and have flexibility
  • Gap junctions – a fusion of adjacent plasma membranes with small channels between them that allow small molecules to diffuse
    • Allow ions to pass
    • Coordinated contractions in heart muscle
glandular epithelia
Glandular Epithelia

For secretion, makes up glands

  • Endocrine glands: “internally secreting”

-secrete into interstital fluid  blood

-secretions = hormones

-regulate and coordinate activities

e.g. pancreas andthyroid

  • Exocrine glands: “externally secreting”

-secrete into duct  epithelial surface

e.g. digestive enzymes, perspiration, tears,

milk, and mucus

exocrine types of secretion
Exocrine: Types of Secretion
  • Serous Glands: water + enzymes

- e.g. parotid salivary gland

  • Mucus Glands: mucin

(+water = mucus)

- e.g. goblet cell

  • Mixed exocrine glands:

(serous + mucus secretion)

-e.g. submandibular salivary gland

structure of multicellular exocrine glands
Structure of Multicellular Exocrine Glands
  • Structural classes of exocrine glands

Simple Glands = undivided

tube shape blind pockets chamberlike

Figure 4–7 (1 of 2)

structure of multicellular exocrine glands1
Structure of Multicellular Exocrine Glands

Compound Glands = Divided

tube shaped blind pockets chamberlike

Figure 4–7 (2 of 2)

moving from tissue to organs and organ systems

4.7 Integumentary system

Moving from tissue to organs and organ systems
  • An organ is 2 or more tissue types working towards a particular function
  • An organ system is a combination of organs that work together to carry out a particular function
body cavities1
Body Cavities
  • Function:
    • protect organs
    • permit changes in size and shape of internal organs
  • Two Cavities:

1. Dorsal body cavity:

      • Cranial and Spinal Cavity

2. Ventral body cavity:

      • Thoracic Cavity (heart and lungs)
      • Abdominopelvic Cavity (“guts”- viscera)
        • Organs enclosed in a cavity are called viscera
the ventral body cavity
The Ventral Body Cavity
  • Includes organs of the
    • Respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system
  • Divided by thediaphragmintothe thoracic cavityand theabdominopelviccavity

Figure 1–10a

ventral body cavity abdominal cavity
Ventral Body Cavity: Abdominal Cavity
  • Also the peritoneal cavity
  • Abdominal Cavity
    • liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, and large intestine
    • Kidneys and pancreas
  • Pelvic Cavity
    • Inferior large intestine, inferior urinary bladder, and some reproductive organs
    • Superior urinary bladder, ovaries, and uterus
the body membranes lining cavities

4.8 Organ systems

The Body Membranes lining Cavities
  • Mucous membranes
    • lining of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems
  • Serous membranes
    • line lungs, heart, abdominal cavity and covers the internal organs; named after their location
    • Pleura: lungs
    • Peritoneum: abdominal cavity and organs
    • Pericardium: heart
  • Synovial membranes
    • lines the cavities of freely movable joints
  • Meninges – cover the brain and spinal cord
organ systems
Organ Systems
  • The body is divided into 11 organ systems
  • All organ systems work together
  • Many organs work in more than 1 organ system
homeostasis

4.9 Homeostasis

Homeostasis
  • The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in the body
  • The nervous and endocrine systems are key in maintaining homeostasis
  • Changes from the normal tolerance limits results in illness or even death
  • All systems important in maintaining homeostasis
negative feedback
The primary mechanism for maintaining homeostasis

Has two components:

sensor

control center

The output of the system dampens the original stimulus

4.9 Homeostasis

Negative feedback
positive feedback

4.9 Homeostasis

Positive feedback
  • A mechanism for increasing the change of the internal environment in one direction
  • An example is the secretion of oxytocin during birth to continually increase uterine contractions
  • Can be harmful such as when a fever is too high and continues to rise
homeostasis1
Homeostasis
  • Requires coordinated efforts of multiple organ systems. Any adjustment made by one physiological system has direct and indirect effects on a variety of other systems. Therefore, the use of homeostasis integrates the human body to allow for the support of life.
structure of the integument
Structure of the Integument
  • 16% of body mass
  • Composed of:
    • Cutaneous Membrane:
      • Epidermis– Superficial epithelium
      • Dermis – underlying CT with blood supply
    • Accessory Structures: originate in dermis
      • Hair
      • Nails
      • Exocrine Glands
  • Subcutaneous layer
    • under the skin between the dermis and internal structures where fat is stored
functions of the integument
Functions of the Integument
  • Protects underlying tissues from infection, exposure and dehydration
  • Excretes salts, water, and organic waste
  • Maintains normal body temp:
    • conserve and radiate heat
  • Synthesizes Vitamin D3 for calcium metabolism
  • Stores Nutrients and Fat
  • Sensory detection:
    • Allowing awareness of surroundings
    • touch, pressure, pain, and temp.

Is important for maintaining homeostasis

connections
Connections
  • Circulatory system:
    • blood vessels in the dermis
  • Nervous system:
    • sensory receptors for pain, touch, and temperature
there are two regions of the skin
Epidermis

Dermis

4.7 Integumentary system

There are two regions of the skin
the epidermis

4.7 Integumentary system

The epidermis:
  • The thin, outermost layer of the skin
  • Made of epithelial tissue
  • Cells in the uppermost cells are dead and become filled with keratin thus acting as a waterproof barrier
  • Langerhans cells
    • a type of white blood cell that help fight pathogens
  • Melanocytes
    • produce melanin that lend to skin color and protection for UV light
  • Some cells convert cholesterol to vitamin D
skin color
Skin Color
  • Pigment based: epidermal pigments and blood pigments contribute to the color
  • Epidermal Pigmentation
  • Dermal Circulation
skin color1
Skin Color
  • Epidermal Pigmentation

A. Carotene: yellow-orange, from diet

- converted into Vitamin A

- localized to epithelium

- functions in normal maintenance

of epithelia and photoreceptors

- excess accumulates

B. Melanin: Brown, from melanocytes

- for UV protection

1 epidermal pigmentation
1. Epidermal Pigmentation
  • Melanocytes: in stratum basale
    • Packaged in melanosomes
    • Transferred to cytoplasm of keratinocytes
    • Cluster around top side of nucleus
    • Eventually digested by lysosomes
  • Everyone has ~1000 melanocytes/mm2
    • Pale People: small melansomes
    • Dark People: larger, greater number of melansomes
1 epidermal pigmentation1
1. Epidermal Pigmentation
  • Freckles:
    • Overproduction of melanin form single melanocytes
  • UV exposure:
    • Some needed for Vitamin D3 production
    • Excess = damage (DNA mutation)
      • Fibroblasts  altered CT structures
        • Wrinkles
      • Epidermal cells, melanocytes  cancer
        • Squamous cell carcinoma
        • Melanoma
what you need to know about skin cancer

4.7 Integumentary system

What you need to know about skin cancer?
  • 2 of the 3 types that arise in the epidermis:
    • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common yet least deadly form of skin cancer
    • Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer but is the least common
  • What can you do to help prevent this?
    • Stay out of the sun between 10am-3pm
    • Wear protective clothing (tight weave, treated sunglasses, wide-brimmed hat)
    • Use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15 and protects from UV-A and UV-B rays
    • Don’t use tanning beds
slide74
Skin

2. Dermal Circulation: hemoglobin pigment

- Oxygenated blood:

- red color, hemoglobin in RBCs,

through skin looks pink

A) Vasodilation  skin looks more red

B) Vasoconstriction  skin looks more pale

the dermis
The Dermis
  • Is located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer
  • Anchors epidermal accessory structures
    • hair follicles, sweat glands
  • Contains:
    • All cells of CT proper, accessory organs of integument, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and sensory receptors
  • Has 2 components:
    • outerpapillary layer
    • deepreticular layer
dermis
Dermis
  • Papillary layer:
    • Thin (20%)
    • Consists:
      • Areolar CT
      • Comprise dermal papillae
      • Capillaries, lymphatics, and

sensory neurons

    • Function: feed epidermis
  • Reticular Layer:
    • Thick (80%)
    • Consists:
      • Dense irregular CT
      • Elastic and Collagen fibers
    • Function: provide strength and flexibility
the hypodermis
The Hypodermis
  • The subcutaneous layer or hypodermis:
    • lies below the integument
    • Not part of cutaneous membrane
    • Stabilizes position of skin while permitting independent movement of skin and muscles
integumentary accessory structures
Integumentary Accessory Structures
  • Hairandhair follicles
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Sweat glands
  • Nails:
  • Accessory Structures:
    • are derived from embryonic epidermis
    • are located in dermis
    • project through the skin surface
functions of hair
Functions of Hair
  • Function:
    • Protects and insulates
    • Guards openings against particles and insects
    • Is sensitive to very light touch
hair color
Hair Color
  • red: iron added
  • Range yellow to black due to melanin from melanocytes in hair matrix
    • Melanin stored in cortex and medulla

With age, melanin declines, air pockets in medulla increase = gray or white hair

nails
Nails
  • Function:
    • protect tips from mechanical stress, assist in gripping
  • Consists of dead cells containing hard keratin
  • New nail formed at nail root
what are the accessory organs of the skin and why are they important

4.7 Integumentary system

What are the accessory organs of the skin and why are they important?
  • Includes nails, hair and glands
  • Nails are derived from the epidermis that offer a protective covering
  • Hair follicles are derived from the dermis but hair grows from epidermal cells
  • Oil glands are associated with hair and produce sebum that lubricates hair and skin as well as retards bacterial growth
  • Sweat glands are derived from the dermis and helps to regulate body temperature