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The American Odyssey. Chapter 21 – The Kennedy Years Section 2 – The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties. Main Idea of the Section.

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the american odyssey

The American Odyssey

Chapter 21 – The Kennedy Years

Section 2 – The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties

main idea of the section
Main Idea of the Section
  • Between 1954 and 1969, the Supreme Court handed down a series of decisions that brought far-reaching changes to the meaning and protection of civil liberties in the United States.
vocabulary of the section
Vocabulary of the Section
  • Reapportionment
  • Due process
prior knowledge of the supreme court
Prior Knowledge of the Supreme Court
  • The highest court in the land.
  • The court is made up of 9 justices.
  • Each justice holds their position until they decide to relinquish it.
  • Each justice is appointed by the President of the United States.
    • Then confirmed by the United States Senate.
the court s authority p 714
The Court’s Authority(p. 714)
  • The Supreme Court has become stronger throughout history.
  • In the beginning, the Court ruled on whether the law had been broken.
  • In 1803 the Court expanded its powers by taking on the role of judging the constitutionality of laws.
    • The power of judicial review began under John Marshall, one of the leaders of the Federalist movement.
the court s authority p 7141
The Court’s Authority(p. 714)
  • When Eisenhower appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren, a further question was raised:
  • Should the Court have had a hand in making the country a better, safer, and fairer place?
the court s authority p 7142
The Court’s Authority(p. 714)
  • Warren and the decisions rendered by his Court answered a resounding “yes” to an activist judiciary.
  • No Supreme Court in history of the United States went further in making reform it business than the Warren Court.
what do you think
What do you think?
  • What do you think when you hear the term activist judge?

Chief Justice Earl Warren

the warren court p 714 717
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • Prior to becoming a Supreme Court Justice, Earl Warren served as the Attorney General and Governor of California.
  • When Eisenhower appointed Warren to the Court, he thought he was appointing a conservative – but over the years Warren became more liberal.
the warren court p 714 7171
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • The Warren Court era of liberal activism was launched by the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
  • People periodically discussed the impeachment of Chief Justice Warren, but later justice appointment s were likely to side with Warren.
the warren court p 714 7172
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • Baker v. Carr
    • Residents of Memphis, Tennessee complained their votes were worth less than rural residents.
  • The Court deiced to hear the case and established federal authority to oversee that state voting districts ensured equal representation.
    • “One person, one vote”
  • Warren called this his most important case.
the warren court p 714 7173
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • The Baker case involved the Court in matters of reapportionment.
    • The redrawing of voting districts in a way that affects the number of representatives assigned to a group of people.
  • The ruling in the case opened the door for what had previously been seen as “political” issue outside the courts decision.
the warren court p 714 7174
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • In Los Angeles County there was 1 Representative for approximately 6 million residents.
  • In Dade County, the largest county in Florida, there was only 4 state representatives out of 133.
the warren court p 714 7175
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • In 1962 Earl Warren and Hugo Black – known religious men – led the Court in banning prayer in public schools.
  • In Engel v. Vitale the Court ruled a nondenominational prayer drafted by the State of New York and read voluntary in classrooms is unconstitutional.
the warren court p 714 7176
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • In three separate cases, Warren – a former prosecutor – defended due process as it related to people accused of a crime
  • These included:
    • Gideon v. Wainwright
    • Escobedo v. Illinois
    • Miranda v. Arizona
the warren court p 714 7177
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
    • Established that people accused of a crime have the right to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one.
the warren court p 714 7178
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
    • Ruled that people have the right to a lawyer from the time of arrest or when they become subject of a criminal investigation.
the warren court p 714 7179
The Warren Court(p. 714-717)
  • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
    • Required that accused people be informed of their right to a lawyer and their right not to testify against themselves.