The American Odyssey Chapter 22: Voices of Protest Section 2: Hispanic Americans Organize
Recent Hispanic Americans (p. 734-735) • The term Hispanic American refers to those Americans who have come, or are descended from others who came, from Spanish-speaking lands. • They have shared Spanish ancestry that ahs included, among other things, practice of the Catholic religion and strong ties with an extended family.
Recent Hispanic Americans (p. 734-735) • Today Hispanic Americans are the fastest growing minority in the United States. • Hispanic sub groups: • Mexican Americans • Puerto Ricans • Cuban Americans • People from Central and South America
Recent Hispanic Americans (p. 734-735) • There are many reasons Hispanic Americans have been coming to the United States: • Mexican Americans • Some can trace their origins back to territories that annexed with the United States after the Mexican War. • Some can trace their origins to ancestors whom fled Mexico following the 1910 Revolution. • Some can trace their origins to the braceros whom arrived during WWII.
Recent Hispanic Americans (p. 734-735) • Puerto Ricans • Because Puerto Rico is a territory of the US, Puerto Ricans may enter the country as citizens. • After WWII, 1 out of 6 Puerto Ricans came to the mainland in search of economic opportunity.
Recent Hispanic Americans (p. 734-735) • Cuban Americans • Began arriving in this country in large numbers after Fidel Castro took over Cuba in 1959. • A second migration to the United States took place between 1965-1970. • Many Cubans left Cuba for political, not economic reasons.
Hispanic Americans Respond (p. 735-737) • Because of the diversity of Hispanic Americans, it was difficult for any one leader to unite all segments into a single force. • In recent years, Hispanic Americans have joined in speaking out on certain common issues – such as immigration.
Hispanic Americans Respond (p. 735-737) • Hispanic Americans, as for other minorities, a major political issue was political representation. • To offset gerrymandering or concentration of Hispanic Americans in urban neighborhoods, groups have sought reapportionment or formed political organizations including La Raza Unida, “the people united.”
Hispanic Americans Respond (p. 735-737) • Among minorities, economic subjects such as wages and working conditions often are not easily distinguished from the broader political and social issues. • Cesar Chavez, for example, thought they should be treated as one issue. • He unionized farm workers into a movement by the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Hispanic Americans Respond (p. 735-737) • All Hispanic Americans share some social and cultural problems. Key issues involve: • Bilingualism • The use of two languages • Assimilation • The integration of minorities into mainstream society.