Cahsee ELA prep Lesson 2 Words in Context
Agenda • Do Now • Words in Context Notes • Practice Samples as a class • Practice Samples with a partner • Practice Samples on your own • Exit Slip
Objective • Students will be able to define literal & figurative words. They will be able to identify and use the literal & figurative meanings of words & understand word derivations by answering questions based on knowledge of vocabulary.
Do Now • Look at each sentence and write down what the word in red means & why do you believe that’s the definition? • 1) We have been dating for over a year and I am CRAZY about him. • 2) I think she’s CRAZY because she honestly thinks that she is a fish and lives under the ocean. • 3) Life is CRAZY sometimes! There is just so much stuff to do and it gets overwhelming!
You may already know… • A LITERAL word means a word’s simplest most obvious meaning • Ex: A bird flew across the sky • A FIGURATIVE word is word that represents or suggest something by bringing to mind an image or association • Ex: He flew by the houses as he drove in his car • A DERIVATION is where a word comes from. We look at the “ROOT” to give clues for the meaning. • Ex: the Word DEPICT is has the same four letters as PICTure. • What do you think this word might mean?
Let’s try some examples as a class • “ I roasted a chicken.” • A) Literal • B) Figurative • C) Derivative
Example 2… • “She roasted in the sun!” • A) Literal • B) Figurative • C) Derivative
Last example • Jesse’s PATERNAL grandfather was born in Belize. • A) Literal • B) Figurative • C) Derivative
Have we met the objective so far • Students will be able to define literal & figurative words. They will be able to identify and use the literal & figurative meanings of words & understand word derivations by answering questions based on knowledge of vocabulary. • Let’s see… what does a LITERAL WORD mean? • What does a FIGURATIVE WORD mean? • Good we are half way there. Let’s continue!
ReadingPlease follow along in your binder, bottom of pg 9. • Pablo’s grandmother had wanted to write a children’s book for many years, but one thing or another always got in the way. Finally, she found the time to do it. She set up a desk on her sun porch and went to work. Once she began writing out her story idea, she realized how complicated it was. It had so many characters, and the plot took many twists and turns. She knew that when it came time to illustrate the book, it would be difficult to depict the story in the simple style a children’s book demanded. Still, Pablo’s grandmother pushed these worries aside and wrote up a storm. She finished writing the book within a month. Now all she had to do was find a great illustrator.
In the following sentence, what does the word DEPICT mean? • She knew that when it came time to illustrate the book, it would be difficult to DEPICT the story in the simple style a children’s book demanded. • A) Perform • B) Show • C) Scold • D) Imagine Take a few moments to figure out the correct answer. Go ahead and circle the letter you feel is correct. “Substitute Perform for Depict. Does it make sense? No, not in context. Pablo’s grandma’s story needs to be illustrated, not performed. Let’s substitute SHOW. She knew when it came time to illustrate the book it would be difficult to show the story … Does it make sense? Yes. To show in pictures is a way to depict something that is written. Before selecting this answer choice we need to check the others. Let’s substitute Scold in the sentence. What do you think? It doesn’t make sense. Scold is to criticize harshly. This one isn’t it. Let’s Substitute Imagine. It does sound like a good substitute. If you didn’t have another answer choice that was perfect this one would be a good guess. In this case you do have a better answer choice, so B is the best answer.
Now let’s try some samples with a partner…. • Let’s read as a class… • It was opening night of the community theater’s new play. Belinda had a big part in it, bigger than any other role she’d ever played. She had worked hard and she felt confident that it would go well. She knew her lines backward and forward, she knew her entrances and exits, and she understood her character’s motivation. That’s why she didn’t understand what was happening to her. As the time approached when the curtain would rise, Belinda’s throat became dry, her hands grew cold and clammy, and her heart began to palpitate.
In the following sentence, what does the word Palpitate mean? • As the time approached when the curtain would rise, Belinda’s throat became dry, her hands grew cold and clammy, and her heart began to palpitate. • A) to pound • B) to jump • C) to toss • D) to shriek • Take some time to think of the correct answer. Remember what we did as a class. Look at all the answer choices. Circle the one you feel is the best fit.
Next one… let’s read • For many months, Avner and 2 friends had planned to attend a concert by Avner’s favorite band. On the day of the concert, Avner pulled the ticket envelope from his bulletin board and discovered he had 2 instead of 3 tickets. Avner just knew he’d bought 3 tickets months before on the day the box office had opened. Now he was going to have to tell his friends that one of them wouldn’t be able to go. At first, he thought he would make up a story to get himself off the hook, but he quickly decided to tell the simple truth. He had absolutely no idea where the ticket had gone. When Avner told his friends, Ze and Zohar, that he had only 2 tickets, they couldn’t fathom why he would have bought only 2 tickets when there were 3 people going. Had he been half asleep when he went to the box office? How could he have made such a gargantuan blunder? He was normally so reliable. Avner protested that he had bought three tickets but that one had mysteriously disappeared.
In the following sentence what does the word Fathom mean? • When Avner told his friends, Zev & Zohar that he had only 2 tickets, they couldn’t fathom why he would have bought only 2 tickets when there were 3 people going. • A) to confuse • B) to argue with • C) to understand • D) to excuse • Take some time to think of the correct answer. Remember what we did as a class. Look at all the answer choices. Circle the one you feel is the best fit.
Let’s practice Literal & Figurative meanings • Remember a LITERAL WORD is a word’s EXACT meaning, the dictionary definition • Turn to pg 194 in your binder. • Let’s practice as a class first. • 1. The Cat’s tongue felt like sandpaper on Marla’s leg. • Literal Meaning : (definition) paper embedded with sand and used to smooth wood. • Figurative Meaning: The cat’s tongue felt rough. • Which one represents the best meaning in the sentence? • A) Literal • B) Figurative
Now try #2 with a partner • After missing three days of school, Tony had a mountain of homework. • A) Literal : (remember definition) A natural elevation of the earth's surface having considerable mass, generally steep sides, and a height greater than that of a hill. • B) Figurative – A BIG PILE OF HOWEWORK (large like a mountain)
Now try #3-#5 on your own. You will have 5 minutes. • 3. The community garden was a tapestryof color. • Literal: A fabric, worked on a warp by hand, the designs employed usually being pictorial; used for wall hangings • Figurative: Colorful & full of designs like a tapestry • 4. When I opened the oven, my loaves were as black as charcoal. • Literal: the carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or other organic substances in the absence of air • Figurative: They were black because they were burnt like charcoal • 5. A flood of questions greeted the candidate as she left her hotel. • Literal: An overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. • Figurative: Too many questions, an overflow like a flood.
Remember: Figurative meanings are used in similies, metaphors and idioms (figurative language) Language used to compare things.
Let’s try out some more… What is the literal meaning of Gauze? any thin and often transparent fabric made from any fiber in a plain or leno weave, a surgical dressing of loosely woven cotton. What might the figurative meaning be? • Turn to pg 195.. Let’s read together • From “Impressions” by Oscar Wilde And suddenly the moon withdraws Her sickle from the lightening skies, And to her somber cavern flies, Wrapped in a veil of yellow gauze. • The Literal (definition) meaning of SICKLE is “a curved steel blade used for cutting grass or grains.” Based on the worlds’ literal meaning, you can infer that the poet is using figurative language to describe… • WHICH LETTER DO YOU FEEL IS CORRECT. Please circle the best answer choice. • B) A crescent moon Does the word somber give a positive or negative connotation (meaning, feeling)?
Word Derivations • Please turn to page 196 • Can someone volunteer to read the top of the page? • English words have many different origins. Some words date back to old English, a form of Einglish spoken in Great Britain between 450-1100 A.D. The ancient Romans and Greeks porvided us with many words as well as commonly used affixes and root words. Over time, many foreign words have become part of the English Language. In addition, peopl’s names can become synonymous with discoveries or inventions. And new words– or new meanings for existing words– are being created all the time. Look at the chart below to lean about the origins of words you may use frequently.
Word List Daughter Fiesta Finale Hardscape Infraction Kowtow Liverwurst Mackintosh Recognize Technology Let’s try some examples • On page 196 let’s try some derivation examples. • Let’s do #1 together. • (make sure you look at the Word list) • What word comes from the Latin root Cogn- for Know? Now with a partner try #2 Chinese word for low bow? Now try 3-10 on your own you will have 10 minutes
Word List Daughter Fiesta Finale Hardscape Infraction Liverwurst Mackintosh Technology Let’s see how you did • 3. Greek suffix meaning the study or Science of? • Technology • 4. Old English word Dohter? • Daughter • 5. Spanish word for party? • Fiesta • 6. New word describes objects such as rocks… • Hardscape • 7.Name of inventor of a waterproof material? • Macintosh • 8.Italian word meaning last section • Finale • 9. German word for Sausage • Liverwurst • 10. Greek root Fract for Break • Infraction
Exit Slip • You will now try your best to complete 11- 20 on pg. 197 on your own. • Remember what we learned. • Use the chart and see what the root words mean. • Fill in each blank with the word you feel is the best fit for the sentence • Goodluck!
CAHSEE ELA Prep Lesson 3 Figurative Language Denotation and Connotation
Warm Up:Write a list of ten words about this image. Be ready to share two or three with the class. After five minutes, teacher should solicit student responses and write words on white board or butcher paper. Put words in two groups: #1 Denotation (words that describe what is literally in the image) and #2 Connotation (words that describe what the image alludes to or suggests but that are not literally in the image. Ask students what they notice about the kinds of words in each group.
Words work like imagesThey both communicate information which we call “meaning” Group #1 Denotative meaning And Group #2 Connotative meaning Like words, the image you wrote about has two types of meaning:
Denotation The words in group #1 denote the objects in the image. They tell what is literally or actually in the image. Teacher should discuss student examples from group #1 and explain that these are literally in the image. The point is to make clear the direct relationship between image or word and denotative meaning. The denotative meaning of a word is its literal meaning – it’s what the word directly represents or means.
Connotation The words in group #2 connote feelings or ideas that you can’t see. They tell what is implied by, but not literally in the image. Teacher should discuss student examples from group #2 and explain that these are not literally in the image. The point is to make clear the indirect relationship between image or word and connotative meaning. The connotative meaning of a word is the feelings or ideas it evokes – it’s what a word indirectly makes you think or feel.
You Use Denotation and Connotation All The Time Without Realizing it Explanation: “Trip” directlydenotes falling down or stumbling. “Trip” also indirectlyconnotes losing control of yourself because when you fall down you are out of control. So finally, “trip” connotes losing control of your emotions. Example: If you say, “Don’t trip” to someone who is getting upset you are using connotation.
Here’s what this might look likein adiagram Trip Fall Stumble Lose control of your body Lose control of your emotions
So, connotation helps us arrive at other, indirect meanings of images, words, and phrases Consider the phrase “…a world of hurt.” As in, “If you don’t study, you’re going to be in a world of hurt.” Take two minutes, turn to your neighbor and explain what you think this means. Try to explain how you get to that meaning (denotation -> connotation -> connotation). Be ready to share with the rest of the class. Teacher should facilitate students’ sharing back as a class in order to reveal the chain of meaning from denotative to connotative (planet of pain to very bad place or situation and suffering).
When we use words in this indirect way, it is called figurative language Connotations that make something sound good are positive. Teacher should solicit responses from students and write them on white board under the heading “Fancy - positive connotations” For example: The word “fancy” has positive connotations like fine, luxurious… Can you think of any others? One last thing: Figurative language may have positive or negative connotation (indirect meaning).
connotations that make something sound bad are negative. For example: The word “expensive” has negative connotations like over-priced or not affordable. Teacher should solicit responses from students and write them on white board under the heading “Expensive - negative connotations.” Can you think of any other negative connotations? On the other hand,
Consider the sentences below Discuss with your neighbor what each sentence connotes, and why. Be ready to share with the class. Teacher should facilitate partner and class discussion. Be sure to point out the distinct connotations of these denotatively similar words. So you see how two words can have very different connotations, even when they denote similar things. 1) “My sister wants to buy a fancy car.” 2) “My sister wants to buy an expensive car.”
Let’s try a sample CAHSEE question Open your CAHSEE prep binders to page 202. Take three minutes to silently read the passage from “A Surprise.” Read the question that follows and be prepared to share your answer and rational (reasons for choosing) with the rest of the class.
What was your answer to the question, “what does the phrase buried under a mountain of work mean?” • Avoiding his studying • B. Beneath a pile of books that fell on him Teacher should go through each answer as they are revealed and voted on, suggesting key rational for eliminating answers a-c (context clues, denotative vs. connotative interpretation, etc). • C. Skipping classes in order to study • D. Overwhelmingly busy Raise your hand if you chose answer:
Quick Review • Literal or direct meaning What is connotative meaning? • Indirect meaning What is figurative language? • Using language to communicate meaning indirectly, as with connotation What is positive connotation? • Connotations that make something sound good What is negative connotation? - Connotations that make something sound bad What is denotative meaning?
Exit Slip Your exit slip tasks for today are: • Read and complete problems 1-3 in your CAHSEE binder beginning on page 203. And… • Complete the positive and negative connotation chart on page 205, using the words in the Word Box at the bottom of the page.
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