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Prerequisites as a Pathway to Student Success. Mark Wade Lieu, ASCCC President Jane Patton, ASCCC Vice President Janet Fulks, ASCCC Curriculum Chair. Current Status with prerequistes. Take a quiz. True or False .

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prerequisites as a pathway to student success

Prerequisites as a Pathway to Student Success

Mark Wade Lieu, ASCCC President

Jane Patton, ASCCC Vice President

Janet Fulks, ASCCC Curriculum Chair

true or false
True or False
  • Most institutions of higher education in the US create prerequisites based upon faculty expertise and content review, without statistical validation.

a. True

b. False

true or false4
True or False
  • The MALDEF case resulted in a verdict requiring CCC’s to justify and validate prerequisites through content review, statistical analysis and comparability with other similar courses and those requirements.

a. True

b. False

true or false5
True or False
  • It is difficult to find data that suggest that having college level reading or writing increases student success in transferable general education courses.

a. True

b. False

true or false6
True or False
  • CSUs and UCs do not require basic skills prerequisites.

a. True

b. False

true or false7
True or False
  • Students are not in support of applying prerequisites to courses.

a. True

b. False

a little context
A Little Context
  • RP Letter
  • Basic Skills Initiative
  • Board of Governor’s Motion on Assessment Task Force
  • Assessment Action Planning Group (APG)
  • Legislative Interest
a little background
A Little Background
  • Prerequisites Pre-1990
  • The Role of MALDEF
  • The Revisionist 90s
  • Where we are today
pre requisite
Pre requisite

“. . . a condition of enrollment that a student is required to meet in order to demonstrate current readiness for enrollment in a course or educational program.”

co requisite
Co requisite

“. . . a condition of enrollment consisting of a course that a student is required to simultaneously take in order to enroll in another course.”

advisory
Advisory

“. . . a condition of enrollment that a student is advised, but not required, to meet before or in conjunction with enrollment in a course or educational program.”

statistical validation
Statistical Validation

Standard research methods :

  • 1)a correlation coefficient such as the Pearson r
  • 2)a matrix or four-cell table and accompanying chi-square
  • 3)a matrix or four-cell analysis showing net increase in accuracy
  • Goals: 1) minimize students who pass without the prerequisite
  • 2) significant chi-square, typically > 3.84 (here P2 = 60, significant at the 0.05 level,
  • 3) maximize right/wrong ratio, typically $ 2:1 (here 90:10 = 9:1), 4) maximize incremental gain in success, typically by $ 10% (here before applying the prerequisite 67/100 = 67%, after applying the prerequisite 66/75 = 88%; 21% gain).

From Good Practice for the Implementation of Prerequisites p.5

content review
Content Review

Content review including, at a minimum, all of the following:

i. involvement of faculty with appropriate expertise;

 ii. consideration of course objectives set by relevant department(s);

iii. be based on a detailed course syllabus and outline of record, tests, related instructional materials, course format, type and number of examinations, and grading criteria;

 iv. specification of the body of knowledge and/or skills deemed necessary;

 v. identification and review of knowledge and/or measures skills identified under iv.

vi. matching of the knowledge and skills in the targeted course and those developed or measured by the prerequisite or corequisite (i.e., the course or assessment identified under v.); and

 vii. maintain documentation that the above steps were taken.

From The Model District Policy on Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Advisories on Recommended Preparation

page 5 Board of Governors September 1993

levels of scrutiny
Levels of Scrutiny
  • Content Review
  • Plus: data collection and analysis
  • Plus assessment instrument (approved by the Chancellor’s Office)
  • Plus validated cut-off scores
  • Plus multiple measures
  • Plus disproportionate impact study
type of requisite
Type of Requisite:

Courses in communication or computational skills outside discipline. . .

level of scrutiny
Level of Scrutiny:
  • Content Review
  • Plus: data collection and analysis

Example:

Math 4A as a Prerequisite for Physics 2A

type of requisite20
Type of Requisite:

Assessment for Placement (for use within the same discipline). . .

level of scrutiny21
Level of Scrutiny:
  • Content Review
  • Plus assessment instrument (approved by the Chancellor’s Office)
  • Plus validated cut-off scores
  • Plus multiple measures
  • Plus disproportionate impact study

Example:

Score on placement or ESL 63 as prerequisite for ESL 64

type of requisite22
Type of Requisite:

Limitation on Enrollment – Performance courses. . .

level of scrutiny23
Level of Scrutiny:
  • Other courses are available to meet degree/certificate requirements
  • Plus disproportionate impact study

Example:

Audition for Dance 22

why prerequisites
Why prerequisites?
  • General Principles
    • assessment of student proficiencies benefits colleges and students’ success
    • absence of clear minimum expectations does a disservice to students, our institutions, and the state
    • establishment of prerequisites should be fair and just with appeals processes per Title 5
why prerequisites25
Why prerequisites?
  • General Principles

4. faculty have an obligation to establish a learning environment that is conducive to the success of all students

5. validation processes that are dependent upon student failure are contrary to aiding their students to achieve their academic goals

6. college-level courses should expect and require students to use and further develop college-level skills

why prerequisites26
Why prerequisites?
  • General Principles

7. prerequisites decisions should be made based on academic considerations, not programmatic or enrollment/apportionment impact

8. there should be easily identifiable course options for all students – regardless of their skill level

why prerequisites27
Why Prerequisites?

Psychology Success Rates

  • 75.2% with college level reading
  • Only 49.0% without

DATA from Bakersfield College

Total=2523

Fall 2001-Summer 2003

why prerequisites28
Why Prerequisites?

Economics Success Rates

  • 87% with Intermediate Algebra
  • 47% with Elementary Algebra
  • 22% with Pre-algebra

DATA from Foothill College

total=303

Fall 2008 only

why prerequisites29
Why Prerequisites?

Two reading possibilities for transfer level History were explored

  • Successful completion of reading graduation requirement
  • One level below

The results…….

DATA from Chaffey College

why aren t prerequisites implemented in california colleges tweak
Why aren’t prerequisites implemented in California Colleges? Tweak?
  • Validation
  • MALDEF Lawsuit
  • Fears
  • Concerns for Our Students
options to consider
Options to consider
  • Use the worksheet
  • Option #1 Content Review
  • Option #2 Statewide Prerequisites
    • Across topics
    • Content Review
next steps
Next Steps
  • Academic Senate Spring Plenary Session Resolutions
  • Assessment APG Recommendations
  • Share with local faculty