Important Dates • 17th-18th Century in Britain • 1667- John Milton publishes Paradise Lost • 1685- James II becomes king • 1687- Newton publishes theory of gravitation • 1688- Glorious Revolution occurs
Important Dates • 1714- Ruling House of Hanover begins • 1757- Victory at Plassey begins British rule of India • 1768- Encyclopaedia Britannica begins publication • 1775- American Revolution begins
“Big Ideas” • Puritanism and the Civil War • The Restoration • The English Enlightenment and Neoclassicism
Puritanism and the Civil War • Puritans strictly held to Protestant beliefs: • The word of God is pure and holy • Very strict • Purification of the Church of England • John Milton was a prominent Puritan writer • Aeropagitica- spoke for “the true warfaring Christian” • Paradise Lost
What kind of shift was there from 1667 (Milton’s Paradise Lost) to 1768 (EncyclopaediaBrittanica)?
Religious Conflict • Puritans and other Protestants were at odds with the monarchy • Divine Right of Kings • James I and Charles I held to this and Catholicism • The English civil war broke out over authority: who should have it and how it should be divided
Civil War • Oliver Cromwell was leader of the Parliamentary Army • Under his leadership, the Parliamentary Army defeated the Royalist Forces • Cromwell’s Puritanical rule led to a lack of pleasure and entertainment • Shortly after Cromwell died, Charles II regained control of the throne lost by his father
Back to John Milton • Raised as a Puritan • Brilliant young artist praised by many • Became active in writing pamphlets in defense of religious and civil freedoms • Believed a king’s power rested with the people, and the people had the right to overthrow a king who abused that power
Still on Milton • Lost his first and second wives, and all but three daughters • At age 44, he lost his eyesight • Arrested as a traitor and forced to pay heavy fines
Read “How Soon Hath Time” Let’s write an essay!
Thesis Statement • What is a thesis statement? • States the intent or purpose of a piece of prose • Includes: author’s name, work (i.e., poem, novel, short story, etc.) and a STRICT guideline for the rest of the paper. • Develops topic sentences for the rest of the paper.
So, What is a Topic Sentence? • A mini thesis for each paragraph • States what the paragraph is going to be and offers structure of paragraph
Develop a Thesis and two topic sentences on the following prompt: How does John Milton’s poem “How Soon Hath Time” exemplify his values about life, and how was the main idea shown in his own life?
Unacceptable Thesis: In my essay I am going to talk about how John Milton reveals his life in his poem. Topic Sentence (TS): John talks about life in the first part. TS: John shows us his life in the second part.
Approaching Target Thesis: In “How Soon Hath Time,” John Milton shows his ideas on life and his true life. TS: Milton’s ideas on life are shown in his comments on “Time.” TS: Milton’s own life is reflected by his discussion of God within in the poem.
Target Thesis: In “How Soon Hath Time,” John Milton illustrates his philosophy of life; indeed, his portrayal of time and God reflect his own life. TS: Milton’s depiction of time reveals his philosophy of life. TS: The poem exemplifies Milton’s attitude towards God in his personal life.
Your Turn! Read “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent” and develop a thesis and two topic sentences that support your answer to the following prompt: How does John Milton’s poem “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent” illustrate his values about life, and how was the main idea shown in his own life?