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Chapter 3. Supply and Demand – Defining a Market - Circular Flow Model. What is a Market?. Any Place Where Goods and Services are Voluntarily Exchanged (brings together buyers and sellers) Price is a primary influence in determining allocation of resources in our free enterprise economy.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Supply and Demand –

Defining a Market - Circular Flow Model

what is a market
What is a Market?

Any Place Where Goods and Services are VoluntarilyExchanged

(brings together buyers and sellers)

Priceis a primary influence in determining allocation of resources in our free enterprise economy.

Difference between Price, Value, Utility

Price= value of product in terms of money

Value= has to do with relative scarcity = exchange value

Utility = satisfaction that good or service can provide

four market models
Four Market Models
  • Pure Competition
  • Monopoly
  • Monopolistic Competition
  • Oligopoly
what determines a person s income in the market
What Determines a Person’s Income in the Market?

This means… what is the value of the human being?

Determined by:

a) value of their product…. Rock singer, athlete, Shaq, Oprah, department store clerk, insurance salesman, teacher

b) supply and demand…. If lot of people doing same things you are… not likely to be paid much.(underwater welders)……. As demand for product decreases, reduces number of available jobs… gas station jobs!

c) if demand for product lacking- rewards minimal and number of competing workers is few, demand high, wages high. 20 years ago… heart surgeons

who determines the value of a product
Who Determines the value of a product?

The value of the product is the worth that society puts on it….

What worth does society put on sports?

What worth does society put on music industry?

What worth does society put on sport cars, SUVs, large houses, motorcycles, eating out, designer clothes, entertainment. Etc, etc. etc. Education?

how does the market flow work
How does the market flow work?

Two markets

Two players

Interact to balance the economy

working model of the ecomony
WORKING MODEL OF THE ECOMONY

International Participants

Payments for Goods & Services

Product Market

Receive Goods & Services

Injection

Investment

Government

Banks

BUSINESS

HOME

Savings

Taxes

Leakage

Land,Labour, Capital, Entrepreneurs

Rent, Wages, Interest, Profit

Factor Market

S+T > I+G = Recession

I+G > S+T = Inflation

International Participants

Leakage S + T = I + G Injection

circular flow explanation
Circular Flow Explanation
  • Flow of resources in the market shows how the market works…
  • In market system, voluntary exchanges continually take place in circular flow model
  • System works that what is an expense to one is ultimately an income to the other
two leakages explained
Two Leakages Explained

Savings and Taxes

  • Savings does not help unless it is invested back into the flow (economy).
  • Financial intermediaries: why are they called this?
  • (because they take savings of one group and make it available to another to borrow or invest)
  • Financial Intermediaries are: banks, savings & loan, credit unions, stock market, insurance companies.
  • If savings is greater than investment..business expenses mount.*****
slide10
Taxes are also a leakage.
  • Government injects tax dollars back into the economy (flow) by spending the money that taxes take out.
  • What expenditures does government make into the flow?
  • ****Money spent on redistribution of income or transfer payments is not “productive into the flow.” Why?**This is where a lot of the controversy occurs about stimulus package.
slide11
S + T greater than I + G = recession

G + I greater than S + T = inflation

Supply-siders favor strong I

Demand-siders (Keynesian economy) favor strong G *** this is where we are now for most of populous thinking

what if
What if???
  • Banks will not loan money?
  • People lose their jobs?
  • Companies are not hiring?
  • People are under-employed?
  • Consumption decreases significantly?
  • That describes the Great Recession.
characteristics of recession inflation
Characteristics of Recession/Inflation

Recession:

Businesses not selling what it produces

Inventories accumulate

Businesses then cut down on employment (hence unemployment/layoffs)

Inflation:

_____________________________

Government and investors spending more

Inventories begin to be depleted

Prices increase

Production increases

More workers are hired

what brand of basketball shoes
What brand of basketball shoes?
  • A. Nike’s = Kobe 8 brand = $160
  • B. LeBron 11 = $200
  • C.LeBron11 Graffiti = $250

D. New Balance $54.99

Which of these would you buy? Get out your smart phone and vote

PollEv.com/karenhorn703

how many kobe nike s sold
How many Kobe Nike’s sold?
  • Depends on Price
  • You are willing and ABLE to purchase
  • Price of LeBron’s Nike’s (relative to Kobe’s)
  • Other substitute options (Reeboks, etc)
  • All other things being equal.
law of supply
Law of Supply

As the price of the product increases, the quantity that the supplier tends to supply also increases.

****Ceteris Paribus Ceteris Paribus Assumption[KAY-ter-us PEAR-uh-bus]

  • Nothing changes except the factor or factors being studied.
  • Other things “constant” “equal”
economics as a science cont d
Economics as a Science (cont'd)
  • Ceteris Paribus Assumption[KAY-ter-us PEAR-uh-bus]
    • Nothing changes except the factor or factors being studied.
    • “Other things constant”
    • “Other things equal”
law of supply1
Law of supply

= positive relationship between the quantity of a good supplied and price.

PRICE IS THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

determinants of supply
Determinants of Supply
  • Technique of production (technology)

(ovens, organic farming)

  • Resource Prices (Factor Costs)– cost of inputs
  • Taxes and Subsidies
  • Prices of Other Goods – (decline in wheat will cause farmer to shift to corn)
  • Expectations- (farmers expect price to rise.. Hold back production)
  • Number of sellers in market – more sellers, greater supply….
important concepts
Important Concepts

Change in Supply (shifting of curve)

Or

Change in Quantity Supplied (movement along curve)

ability to respond to price varies
Ability to Respond to Price varies

Often the ability of an individual firm to respond to an increase in price is limited or constrained by its existing scale of operations, or capacity, or ability to obtain resources….. IN SHORT RUN

Examples:

IN LONG RUN… can adjust. The greater the amount of time producers have to adjust, the greater their output response.

law of demand
Law of Demand

AS THE PRICE OF A GOOD DECREASES THE QUANTITY DEMANDED TENDS TO INCREASE….

***Ceteris Paribus

Price once again is the independent variable!

slide23
Wishing for a new boat does not constitute demand… one must be WILLING ANDABLE to purchase a boat.

Generally speaking…. The higher the price obstacle, the less of a product a consumers will buy.

Bargain days are based on law of demand.

why inverse effect
Why Inverse Effect?

1.) Just common sense- at lower prices we buy more.

2.) The more we buy of one product, the less satisfied we are. Will only buy if price is continually lowered.

3.) The lower the price of an item, the more our income will buy.

slide25
The greater the want satisfaction…. The greater the utility…

Marginal Utility… How much more utility do you get adding or subtracting units (more doughnuts… more cars… more steak in one day)

DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY.

As the number of units of a product a consumer has increases, the satisfying power for each extra unit decreases.

utility
Utility

Purpose of Utility analysis is to study howpeople behave not how they think.

Theory of consumer choice is based on the idea that each consumer spends his/her income in a way that yields the greatest satisfaction.

determinants of demand
Determinants of Demand

1.Preferences

2.Prices of Related Goods

3.Number of Buyers

4.Expectations of future price

5.Income

determinants of demand1
Determinants of Demand
  • Tastes and preferences

Taste changes throughout our lifetime.

2 determinant prices of related goods
# 2 Determinant: Prices of Related Goods

Your preference is Coke… price skyrockets….

Affected in the market by substitute goods and complimentary goods.

*Substitute goods… anything that can be substituted for the product or service desired…

(Coke/Pepsi,

Millers/Coors,

potato chips/popcorn).

If price of Coke rises… and consumer doesn’t feel strongly about brand preference… will buy Pepsi until Coke price declines)

When two products are substitutes, the price of one good and the demand for the other are DIRECTLY RELATED.

slide30
*Complementary Goods… Goods that “go along with other goods consumer’s buy”

peanut butter/jelly, beer/pretzels, milk/cookies, golf balls/golf tees,

When two goods are complements, an increase in the price of one good adversely affects the demand for the other and creates an inverse relationship.

determinants continued
Determinants Continued

3. Number of buyers

The number of buyers will increase demand for the product which (if supply is fixed) will drive up the price.)

determinant 4
Determinant #4

Income-RATHER OBVIOUS HERE.

Show shifts…

Superior or Normal goods= commodities whose demand varies DIRECTLY with money income.

INFERIOR OR “POOR MAN’S” GOODS.

Goods whose demand varies inversely with a change in money income.

slide34
5. Expectations…

If you are in medical school or law school, the expectation of you getting a larger income when you get out of school will affect your demand for goods… Inheriting money, winning the lottery!

important concepts of demand
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS OF DEMAND

Change in Demand

OR

Change in Quantity Demanded

terms to remember
Terms to Remember

Profit:

TR-TC

Total Revenue

P x Q

Marginal Utility

To maximize utility, consumers should choose that good which delivers the most marginal utility per dollar. Optimal utility is then achieved.

Optimal consumption= mix of output that maximizes total utility for the limited amount of income you have to spend.

equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium = market clearing price… supply and demand are “in balance.”
  • Does not occur often if ever with the constantly changing “invisible hand” and the consumer fickleness.
  • In our U.S. economy we have consumer sovereignty… which tends to shift both curves or move along the curve almost continuously.
ceilings and floors
Ceilings and Floors

Price Ceiling-

  • a legally established maximum price that sellers may charge (rent control)
  • Direct effect of a price ceiling is a shortage
  • Secondary effect- reduction in the quality of the good, inefficient use, lower future supply, black markets,
slide39
Price Floors
  • Price floor is a legally established minimum price that buyers must pay. (minimum wage)
  • Direct effect= reduces employment of low-skilled labor
  • Indirect effects – reduction in nonwage component of compensation (perks), lesson-the-job training.
black markets
Black Markets
  • Markets that operate outside the legal system
  • Have a higher incidence of defective products, higher profit rates, greater violence (cigarettes, drugs {both prescription and illegal}, Levis during cold war)
supply and demand for cowboy tickets
Supply and Demand for Cowboy Tickets

http://www.tickco.com/schedule/dallas-cowboys/

http://www.tickco.com/schedule/new-england-patriots/

slide45

Kiley is my best friend… She

Supplies a lot of love! 