Computer Fundamentals & Component Identification Ogunniran Stephen T.
Table of Content • Definition of Computer • Forms of Computer • Computer Generation • Structure of a Computer • Component Identification • Types of Computer • Working Computer System • Computer Application • Advantages & Disadvantages of Computer
Definitions Computer is an electronic data processing device, which does the following: • Accept and store an input data. • Process the data input. • And output the processed data in the required format.
Any electronic device that can be programmed to accept data (Input), process the data into useful information (output), and store it away (in a secondary storage device) for safe keeping or later use.
Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for future use.
Forms of Computer • Analogue • Digital • Hybrid
Analogue: A form of computer which accept data as a quantity (continuous values) over a length of time. They are used for scientific purposes. They can be compared to measuring instruments such as the thermometer, speedometer / tachometer used in plants and refineries.
A practical example that is still widely used is the Distributed Control System (DCS) is a computerized control system used to control the production line in the industry . DCS is a dedicated system used to control manufacturing processes that are continuous or batch-oriented, such as oil refining, petrochemicals, Power Generation etc.
A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers and uses both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol (TCP/IP) for communication. Input and output modules form component parts of the DCS.
Digital Computer: Digital Computers are capable of performing operations on data represented in digit or number form (i.e discrete values). There advantage over analogue is that there accuracy level is higher.
Most computer today are digital, because they carry out logic, arithmetic and control processes involving the manipulation of bits, words / characters or information.
Hybrid Computer: A hybrid computer in a simple term combines the measuring capabilities of the analogue with the logic, arithmetic and control capabilities of the digital computer. They are usually designed to perform specific tasks and are widely used in space vehicle simulations and training of space and airline pilots.
Generation & Description • First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959. Vacuum tube based. • Second Generation (minicomputer)The period of second generation: 1959-1965. Transistor based. • Third GenerationThe period of third generation: 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based.
Fourth GenerationThe period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. VLSI (very large scale integrated) microprocessor based. • Fifth GenerationThe period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards. ULSI (ultra large scale integrated) microprocessor based • (Dual Core processors generation Core i3 – i7)
INPUT UNIT • This unit contain devices with which we enter data into computer. It makes the link between user and the computer possible by translating the human information into the form which the computer understands. such devices include: Keyboard, Mouse, Scanners, Finger Print Sensor, Camera …
MEMORY / STORAGE UNIT Memory Or Storage Unit: This unit can store instructions, data and intermediate results. It supplies information to the other units of the computer when needed. It is also known as internal storage unit or main memory or primary storage or Random access memory(RAM).
The Computer system uses two type of storage namely: Primary and Secondary storage. The CPU interacts closely with primary storage or main memory (RAM). A computer's memory holds data only temporarily at the time the computer is executing a program.
ARITHMETIC UNIT This section performs arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
LOGIC UNIT This section performs logic operations such as comparing, selecting, matching and merging of data.
CONTROL This unit controls the operations of all parts of the computer. It does not carry out any data processing operations. It’s functions includes: • Controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.
It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer. • It obtain instructions from the memory, interprets them and directs the operation of the computer. • It communicates with Input / Output devices for the transfer of data or results from one storage device to another. • It does not process or store data.
OUTPUT • Video Display Unit (VDU) or Monitor • Printers etc
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION This section briefly examines all components required to assemble a basic PC.
1. CHASIS Also known as case, houses the motherboard, power module, disk drives, adapter cards and any other physical component in the system unit. The different types includes: Tower, Desktop, and low profile (slim line).
2. Power Module- feeds electrical power to every segment in the PC. It converts Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC) which the computer requires to operate.
The motherboard is the core of the system which interconnects the various components of the computer.
4.Microprocessor Is the engine of the computer, also called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The unit of a processor is the transistor, combination of two or more transistors is referred to as Integrated Circuit (IC). Modern microprocessor (microchip) contain millions of transistors.
MICROPROCESSOR Microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory and provides results as output. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system.
Makers of Processors AMD, Analogue Device, Appolo, Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, IBM, Intel, NEC, OpenCores, Oracle Corporation (former sun Microsystems), Texas Instruments, Western Digital etc
The processor used in a computer system determines the : • Memory size to be used. • Speed of the computer. • Size / Speed of the cooling fan or the need for it (2nd Gen 80286 did not require fan). • Power consumption - aiming at usage in laptops ( 3rd Gen). • Cost of the computer
Memory (RAM) This memory is volatile, referred to as Random Access Memory (RAM). It is the primary memory which holds all programs and data the processor is using at a given time. RAM requires power to maintain storage. So when power is turned off, everything in RAM is cleared; and has to be released (from the cache) when power is turned on.
Cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations.
The initial programs for the processors come from a special memory called Read Only Memory (ROM) which is not erased when power goes off.
Video Card The video card controls the information displayed on the VDU.
CMOS Battery CMOS is Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. It is responsible for keeping the certain computer setting such as the time and date running even when the computer is not in use.
Disc Drive HDD - Hard Disc Drive ( IDE / SATA) IDE – Integrated Drive Electronics (a standard electronic interface used between a computer motherboard's data paths or bus and the computer's disk storage devices). SATA – (Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. The recent development is the Solid State HDD.
Solid-State Drive A solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk or electronic disk, though it contains no actual "disk" of any kind, or motors to "drive" the disks) is a data storage device using integrated circuit assembled as memory to store data.