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Первичный нуклеосинтез, образование D и содержание HD/H2 в межзвездных облаках, существовавших 12 млрд. лет назадД.А.Варшалович, А.В. Иванчик, С.А. БалашевФизико-технический институт им. А.Ф. Иоффе РАН2009
BBN Epoch: Evolution of Nuclear Composition t ~ 3-5 min (D/H)max ~ 0.7·10-2 kTBBN ~ 70 keV nB(BBN) ~ 1018-1019cm-3 ng(BBN) ~ 1028cm-3
BBN Yield: Light Nuclei Abundances MH/MB~0.76 MHe4/MB~0.24 MZ/MB<10-4 • Standard Model • nB(BBN)is the only free parameter • [D] is the most sensitive to nB(BBN) • Under Adiabatic Expansion • Fraction of Baryon Matter • Contemporary density The Standard Matter Fraction is ~ 5% !!!
CMBR: T0=2.726 K, eg(0)=0.26 eV/cm3, ng(0)=411 cm-3 Redshifted Thermal Radiation of the Primordial Plasma at the Recombination Epoch: tR ~ 400000 yr, TR ~ 3000 K, nB(R) ~ 300 cm-3, ng(R) ~5·1011 cm-3 Power spectrum of CMBR fluctuations Anisotropy of CMBR CMBR fluctuations dT0/T0~10-5 display a beginning stage of LSS formation. Correlation of the fluctuations Comparison of the theory with observations by WMAP gives:
DI/HI Atomic Lines in QSO Absorption Spectra PrimordialNucleosynthesis Difficulties of DI/ HI line identification • = nB/ng = 2.74´10-8 WBh2 = Const(t) • WB= 0.044±0.004 (Burles et al. 2001)
H2absorption lines imprinted in QSO 1232+082 spectrum (zabs = 2.33771) Varshalovich, Ivanchik, Petitjean et al., Astron Letters 27, 683, 2001
Interstellar Molecular Clouds 12 Gyr ago: [H2] ~ 4.8·1019 cm-2 [HD] ~ 3.4·1015cm-2 Our Epoch: [H2] ~ 3.4·1020 cm-2 [HD] ~ 2.1·1014cm-2
Molecular cloud at z=2.33771 • Molecular column densities • HD/H2 molecular abundance ratio • The limit of HD/H2 chemistry: D/H isotope ratio
BBN Theory • Baryon/Photon number density ratio corresponding to the D/H isotope ratio • Under Adiabatic Expansion • So, the number density of baryons (average) at our epoch The average fraction of baryon matter at our epoch is
Observed and predicted BBN abundances 4He 2D 3He 7Li CMBR
Conclusions I • HD-molecules at high redshift are detected for the first time. • Primeval H2-HD molecular cloud was discovered that had existed 12 Gyr ago. • The ratio of [HD]/[H2] in the primeval cloud was significantly larger than that is observed in the interstellar clouds of our Galaxy.
Conclusions II • We obtain D/H isotope ratio by independent method • from HD/H2 abundances and include it into the BBN code. • The result is • The fraction of baryon matter at our epoch is which coincides (within the errors) with B from CMBR WMAP
Conclusions III • Nevertheless, our most probable D/H value is a bit larger than the one commonly accepted today. • This value is in better agreement with other observational data, including 4He, 3He, 7Li.
Changing populations of levels with optical depth Balashev, Varshalovich, Ivanchik, Astron Letters 35, 150, 2009
Nonstandard curves of growth Balashev, Varshalovich, Ivanchik, Astron Letters 35, 150, 2009