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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

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  1. The Renaissance and Reformation Section 1: The Italian Renaissance Chapter 6

  2. Renaissance means rebirth Italian Renaissance

  3. Italian Background • Major city centers • Venice: Republic ruled by oligarchy, Byzantine origins • Milan: Visconti and Sforza families • Florence (Tuscany): Republic ruled by the Medici • Papal States: Ruled by the Pope • Kingdom of Naples: King of Aragon

  4. The Renaissance first developed in Italy in the 14th century. ( 1350 AD) Long distance trade in the Mediterranean had continued after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Urban life had remained strong in Italy. Memories of the Roman Empire were everywhere to be seen. Italy- The Cradle of the Renaissance

  5. Italy suffered the least from the collapse because of its position extending into the Mediterranean. Italy was a natural point of contact between Europe and the Byzantine Empire. (Eastern Roman Empire) The Crusades poured much wealth into Italy. Carrying trade provided huge profits to such maritime states as Venice and Pisa. Geography

  6. Often at war with each other, the states of Italy shared many elements. Italians mostly spoke dialects of the same language. Italians saw themselves as the natural heirs of the Roman Empire. All were members of the Roman Church People of Italy

  7. Interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture • Characteristics of good education • Scholastic education gave way to classics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, Greek • Humanists emphasized individual accomplishment Humanities

  8. Petrarch is often called the “Father of Humanism” During his travels, he collected crumbling Latin manuscripts and was a prime mover in the recovery of knowledge from writers of Rome and Greece. Focus on the individual and his dignity Petrarch

  9. Renaissance Politics • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) -- “The Prince” • The goal of the prince must be power • Cynical view of human nature • Fear is a better motivator than affection • Politics as the art of deception

  10. Renaissance artists worked for whoever offered them highest price • Buyers of art, (patrons), might be wealthy individuals, city governments, or church Patrons of the Arts

  11. Wealthy individuals competed with each other, displaying wealth through purchase of artworks, Competition Among Patrons

  12. Renaissance Art • What was different? • Realism • Perspective - the way in which objects appear to the eye • Classical (pagan) themes • Geometrical arrangement of figures • Light and shadowing • Softening of edges • Backgrounds • Artist able to live from commissions

  13. Renaissance Man • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields • Deep knowledge of skill in one area • Able to link areas and create new knowledge

  14. The Four Turtles

  15. Leonardo Da Vinci • Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) • True Renaissance Man • Scientist, inventor, engineer and naturalist • Dissected Corpses • Short attention span

  16. Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks ca. 1485oil on wood6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in.

  17. Mona Lisa

  18. Michelangelo Michelangelo (1475 – 1564) • Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel • Incredible energy and endurance

  19. Pieta’

  20. David

  21. David

  22. Sistine Chapel

  23. Sistine Chapel

  24. Sistine Chapel

  25. Moses • Received funding from Pope Leo X • The Moses

  26. Raphael • Raphael (1483-1520) • Man of great sensitivity and kindness • Died at the age of 37 • “The School of Athens”

  27. Raphael

  28. School of Athens

  29. Madonna of the Meadow

  30. Donatello - 1386 – 1466 His most famous work is the free-standing, sensual, bronze sculpture, David Donatello

  31. David Saint George Donatello Mary Magdalene

  32. Donatello David ca. 1428-1432bronze5 ft. 2 1/4 in. high