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Towards Revolution. Colonial Crisis. Study Guide and Identifications. What events led to crisis in the British North America? Orders of Council Sugar Act Coercive Acts Townsend Act Stamp Act Boston Massacre. Study Guide Question & ID’s.

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towards revolution

Towards Revolution

Colonial Crisis

study guide and identifications
Study Guide and Identifications
  • What events led to crisis in the British North America?
  • Orders of Council
  • Sugar Act
  • Coercive Acts
  • Townsend Act
  • Stamp Act
  • Boston Massacre
study guide question id s
Study Guide Question & ID’s
  • How did British Colonists respond to Imperial authority? What factors led to the question of independence?
  • Son’s of Liberty
  • Edenton Ladies Tea Party
  • First and Second Continental Congress
  • Thomas Paine, Common Sense
aftermath of colonial wars
Aftermath of Colonial Wars

Treaty of Paris

Britain had tremendous national


Britain alienated colonies

Left army in America

Taxes Americans to pay its cost

Americans insisted that taxation without representation in Parliament violated their rights as English men

george greenville
George Greenville
  • Kings Chief administrator in 1763
    • Began passing policies to impose greater control over the colonies
  • Extract greater wealth
    • Anti-American
    • Viewed colonists as spoiled children in need of punishment
orders of council 1763
Orders of Council 1763
  • Stationed British naval vessels in American waters
  • Intended running down and seizing all colonial merchant ships suspected of smuggling
    • Goal to end American smuggling
    • Compel colonists to pay more in trade duties
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763

Goal to avoid costly Indian wars

Goal to avoid westward settlement for fear of the establishment of inland markets and therefore eventual competition

Garrisoned more British soldiers to keep control over settlers and Indians

revenue or sugar act 1764
Revenue or Sugar Act 1764
  • Regulated loading & unloading of vessels for the purpose of identifying smugglers
  • Placed duties on coffee, indigo, sugar and wine
    • Greenville hoped to gain an annual revenue of 40,000 pounds
    • To pay for costs of colonial wars & stationing of British troops
    • Context of a post war depression 1770s
crisis one stamp act 1766
Crisis One: Stamp Act 1766
  • Directly taxed 50 items
    • Newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, playing cards, wills, land deeds, college diplomas
  • Expected to yield 100,000 pounds per year
      • Britain refused to give representation
        • Greenville argued English citizens were virtually represented in that because they resided in the Empire enjoyed representation by parliament
      • Continued resistance led to its repeal
royalist faction
Royalist Faction
  • Leadership in Massachusetts That enjoyed political patronage of the crown
    • Lt. Governor & Chief Justice, Thomas Hutchinson
    • Governor, Francis Bernard
    • Secretary and Councilor, Andrew Oliver
popular or country faction
Popular or Country Faction
  • Samuel Adams
  • Lawyer, James Otis Jr.
    • By 1760 Adam’s assumed leadership of the popular rights faction in Mass. Politics
    • Guided the “Loyal Nine” in directing politics of resistance
    • Communicated plans to artisans & Mechanics who were leaders of the “Leather Apron” or working associations
leather apron gangs
Leather Apron “gangs”
  • North End and South End gangs
  • Fraternal organizations providing fellowship for artisans, apprentices & day laborers
    • Originally competed and fought amongst themselves
    • Adams fostered unity to defend political liberties
secret society son s of liberty
Secret Society: Son’s of Liberty

Led by prominent citizens’ referred to as the Associator’s

Used violence to resist taxation

Boycotts, demonstrations


Effigy burning

Destroyed Andrew Oliver’s Warehouse

andrew oliver
Andrew Oliver
  • Merchant
  • Loyalist
  • Tax Collector in Boston
  • Resigned his post due to intimidation and destruction of his property
    • Rendered office of the stamp collector powerless
    • Set a precedent of further resistance
      • Augustus Johnston, RI
      • Zacahriah Hood, MD
      • Jared Ingersoll, CT
official petitions to parliament
Official Petitions to Parliament
  • Patrick Henry, Virginian Lawyer
  • Proposed 7 resolutions in the House of Burgess of which endorsed 4:
      • No taxation without representation
      • Denied King and Parliament all legislative power over the American provinces
stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress
  • New York City, 1765
  • James Otis led the movement for the Massachusetts General Court to call for an inter colonial congress to draft a joint statement of grievances
    • 9 colonies responded, 27 delegates appeared in New York
    • Significance: demonstrated colonial unity
economic boycott
Economic Boycott
  • New York Merchants
    • Pledged to stop importation unless the Stamp act was repealed
      • Principal port cities followed
  • November 1, 1765 – commerce in the colonies came to a Halt
  • 1766 Stamp Act Repealed
  • Passed the Declaratory Act
    • Ensuring parliaments full power and authority to tax colonists and make laws and statutes
crisis two the townsend act 1767
Crisis Two: The Townsend Act, 1767
  • Parliament imposed taxes on imports
    • British manufactured glass, paper, lead products, painter’s colors, tea
    • Projected revenue of 35 – 40,000 pounds/yr
  • Colonists :non-importation & talk of producing cloth
  • Britain responded with sending troops
  • Modified act but duty on tea remained
crisis three boston massacre
Crisis Three:Boston Massacre

1769 Son’s of Liberty clashed with troops

Troop Baiting

Resistance to military presence

1770 5 civilians killed, 6 wounded

Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick, Crispus Attucks, dead

2 soldiers singled out for the murders, thumbs branded sent back for duty

Failure of first attempt of military Coercion

Military presence ended in Boston

holiday march 5 1770
Holiday, March 5, 1770

Samuel Adams declared the date of Boston Massacre a holiday

Commemorated fallen martyrs

Keep the struggle for the defense of liberties alive

tea act
Tea Act

Fourth crisis: Tea Act of 1773

Boston colonists destroyed British tea

45 tons Boston Harbor

Increase of assaults against tax collectors

Thomas Hutchinsonof Boston

edenton ladies tea party
“Edenton Ladies’ Tea Party”

Images of Women’s Republican Virtue

Edenton Proclamation

52 women of N.C. Boycott English tea & cloth

Right & Duty to participate in political events of their time & Region

English Satire of American Revolutionary Women’s Meetings

samuel adams
Samuel Adams
  • Born Boston, MS
  • Prime instigator of protest against imperial policies post 7 year war
  • Published pamphlets warning of power hungry royal officials
  • Tax collector who did not collect 8000 pounds
    • Opposed local leader & merchant Thomas Hutchinson
      • Represented elite privilege
coercive acts 1774
Coercive Acts, 1774
  • Series of legislation passed to address colonial rebellion
    • Boston Port Bill: closed the port until colonists paid for the tea
    • Massachusetts Government Act: expanded powers of royal governor and abolished the elective council
    • General Thomas Cage replaced Governor Hutchinson
    • Administration of Justice Act: More protection for collectors and imperial officers
    • Amendment to the Quartering Act of 1765: power to house imperial troops anywhere
resistance 1765 1775
Resistance 1765-1775

British fear

convinced of organized movement for independence

Colonists denied wish for independence

Feared deprivation of liberty & rights as Englishmen

Britain used military coercion

Americans resisted with violence

colonial loyalties until 1773
Colonial Loyalties until 1773

Majority of colonists

Loyal British Subjects

Vague right to self-government


Began to question relationship with Britain

Developed clear notion of self-government

Parliament had little authority in daily lives of Americans

escalation of new ideology violence
Escalation of new ideology & Violence

Conflict over taxation transformed colonial relationship

Language of resistance Groups centered around ideas of liberty

first continental congress
First Continental Congress

1774 – Philadelphia

Began to function as

central government for colonies

55 delegates of 12 colonies

Lawyers, doctors, merchants & planters

John Adams of Massachusetts

Patrick Henry of Virginia

role of first congress
Role of First Congress

3 tasks

Define American Grievances

Define constitutional relationship with Britain

Develop plan to address grievances

Agreed on laws they wanted appealed

Did not agree on relationship with Britain

Some believed they owed allegiance only to King George III

Other believed Parliaments supremacy over the empire

john adams compromise
John Adams compromise

Parliament had no authority over the colonies except in the case of trade legislation

Legislation was subject to colonial consent

Legislation only used to regulate commerce

Legislation could not be used to raise revenue for the Empire

continental association
Continental Association

First Continental Congress formed an association

Called for a repeal of the Coercive Acts

Resistance efforts

Non-importation of British goods

Total ban on all exports

daughter s of liberty mercy otis warren
Daughter’s of Liberty & Mercy Otis Warren

Assumed Masculine Name to Publish political tracts John Singleton Copley

1805 history of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution

Corresponded with Washington, Adams & Jefferson


Raised question of independence before the congress did

Favored state rights over national government

The only way to protect against misuse of power was to put tight restrictions on those who ruled

british response
British Response

General Cage surveyed level of resistance

Parliament passed resolution declaring Massachusetts in a state of rebellion

Cage arrested leaders of Massachusetts Provincial Congress

Led to battles at Concord and Lexington

towards independence
Towards Independence

Violence of 1775 led to improvised war

Second Continental Congress

Organized forces around Boston

Formed the Continental Army

Appointed George Washington of Virginia to command rebel forces

Appealed to King George to Intercede to end crisis and negotiate peace

congressional factions
Congressional Factions
  • New Englanders:
      • favored a formal declaration of Independence
  • Reconciliationist’s or Moderates
    • Led by John Dickinson, Pennsylvania
continental army recruits
Continental Army Recruits
  • Economically hard pressed
    • Early teens to mid twenties
    • Landless
    • Unskilled
    • Poverty stricken
    • Expendable
  • Un-free
    • Indentured servants and slaves
    • Stood as substitutes for Masters in exchange for personal freedom at war’s end
african american enlistment
African American enlistment
  • Massachusetts: first state to authorize enlistment of African Americans, enslaved and free
  • Rhode Island: two black regiments
  • Maryland & Virginia followed
    • Patriot general asked: why “so many sons of freedom” seemed so anxious to “trust their all to be defended by slaves”
enlistment of women
Enlistment of Women
  • Margins of Society
  • Given half-rations
  • The British Army allowed 1 women in the ranks for every 10 men
  • The Continental army allowed 1 for 15
women s revolutionary role
Women’s Revolutionary Role

•To endow domesticity with political meaning 

Women were politicized during war and so was the domestic arena. 

Women fought as soldiers

20,000 marched with soldiers

Cooks, nurses, doctors, laundresses, guised, porters

Consumer boycotts infused daily activities and household production with political meaning. 

Kept economy alive, planted and harvested

Households provided goods and services to soldiers;

were places to which embattled came for supplies, housing, laundry, clothing, nursing. 

The expanded role of households during the war was given a new twist in early Republic. 

The result was the idea and the image of Mothers of the Republic, and Mothers of Republicans

notable women
Notable Women
  • Groton, Mass.
      • Dressed in men’s clothing, armed themselves with muskets and pitchforks to defend the local bridge & captured British soldiers
  • 20,000 women marched with American armies
    • Molly Hays or Molly Pitcher (Penn. Granted her a Pension)
    • Deborah Sampson Gammett (Timothy Thayer & Robert Shurtleff) joined the army twice
    • Federal and Mass. Pension
British General, Burgoyne

Even if the British were to defeat all the men in America, they would still have to contend with all the women

British occupation of Charleston

Why women fat women were coming back thin

Smuggling food past the enemy occupation

22yr Deborah Champion dispatched intelligence to General Washington in Cambridge Mass. From Ct. (Spy)

rebels loyalists
Rebels & Loyalists

Throughout 1775

Congressmen and most Americans advocated reconciliation

Defensive struggle until peace could be negotiated

By 1776 patriots had gained control of all 13 colonies

British displayed violence

Threatened turning of slaves & Indians against settlers

Continued to alienate colonists

lord dunmore s declaration of emancipation
Lord Dunmore’s Declaration of Emancipation
  • Royal Governor in Williamsburg, Virginia
  • 1775, Lord Dunmore in response to Rebel patriots he fled to Chesapeake Bay
  • To raise loyalist soldiers he offered freedom to slaves who would fight
    • First Mass Emancipation of slaves
    • Fear by Planters that Slaves would turn against their masters
    • Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment
    • Lost at Battle of Great Bridge, December, 1775
    • Dunmore fled the colonies in 1776
final steps towards independence
Final Steps towards independence

1776 Thomas Paine Common Sense

Considered question of independence

final steps towards independence1
Final Steps towards independence

1776 Thomas Pained Common Sense

Considered question of independence

Stressed Locke an theme of government

Contractual relationship between the people and the government

Give up a little property and natural rights for protection and civil rights

Hereditary Kingships and aristocratic titles inherently unfair

People should welcome opportunity to severe ties with oppressive and unequal system of government

Basis of colonial loyalties

Loyalty to the king

After demolishing this relationship

Argued independence

Free American involvement in world wars

Free trade

Free economics

Prosperity & Liberty

Declaration of Independence
  • July 2, 1776 Continental Congress passed resolution favoring independence
    • July 4, 1776 Adopted Committed new nation to Republicanism: government whose sovereignty was derived from consent of the government as expressed through the vote
      • Limited to property owning white men
language of liberty
Language of Liberty

Belief in rights of man

Human liberty derived from natural rights not constitution (British in this case)

Contractual society

When government breaks its contracts to protect rights of the people

Americans justified in resorting to armed resistance when peaceful means of redress fail

language of sons of liberty
Language of Sons of Liberty

Language of liberty

Stressed rights

To self government

To representation

To trial by jury

Decried tyranny & slavery when these rights were violated

Minorities: African/Indian/Asian/Mexican/Women bound to hear this

who would be included
Who would be Included?

Who would equality be applied to?



Inequalities of slavery came under attack for the first time in the 18th Century

Quakers first prohibited slavery

abigail adam s letters to john
Abigail Adam’s letters to John

The Constitution… what About the Women?

Abigail to John 1776

“I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.”

John to Abigail, 14 April 1776

“We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems…. which would completely subject Us to the Despotism of the Peti-coat…. A fine Story indeed.”

focus questions identification
Focus Questions/Identification
  • In what ways can the Revolutionary war be characterized?
  • To whom did the question of increased liberty and freedoms apply, and to whom did they not apply?
  • What was women’s role in the Revolution and how did their status change socially and politically following the war?
  • Republican Motherhood
most americans
Most Americans

Equality not the issue

Ideas of liberty Restricted

Liberty – meaning freedom from British control

the unequal
The Unequal

The Enslaved:

Boston slaves made it clear to British and patriots they would serve which ever side supported freedom


Increased political awareness and empowerment as result of participation and contributions to war efforts

Working Men

Sailors, artisans, traders, farmers

Called on to support boycotts, demonstrations, riots etc

Concept of life and politics bound to change

revolutionary war
Revolutionary War


believed loss of colonies would fatal blow to empire

Raised more soldiers and larger fleets


Colonized California in an effort to stabilize claim over territory

French aided Patriots

Without it patriots would not have won


generous trade terms with France

Alliance bound the two nations in perpetuity

Committed France to fight until Britain conceded independence

France disavowed all territorial ambitions in North America

declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence

1776 Revolutionary leaders made 2 decisions of enduring importance

1. Declared Independence & adopted the Declaration of Independence

2. Committed new nation to Republicanism

A government whose sovereignty was derived from the consent of the governed as expressed through the vote

Input limited to landed white males

1770 s 1820 s liberty rhetoric republican womanhood
1770’s-1820’s Liberty RhetoricRepublican Womanhood

Early republic view that women were at least partly (or even mostly) responsible for fostering republican virtues and ideals of democracy and liberty

Origins in Enlightenment ideas

Enlightenment debate over women’s rights

patriotic duty to educate her sons to be moral and virtuous citizens.

Jane Stuart, “An interior scene at Boston,” ca. 1835

3 wars
3 wars

Characterized in 3 ways

1. Civil war between patriots and loyalists

2. War of Conquest of First Nations peoples

3. Revolutionary in the ideas that would challenge social arrangement

Initially only a political break

civil war
Civil War

Large proportion of Americans did not support war or its aims

Some supported rebels and continuation of British Rule

Others sympathetic to pre-war movement against taxation did not support armed resistance

Some neutral & wanted to avoid conflict

revolutionary war1
Revolutionary War

Political break with Britain

Led to creation of United States

First colonial war of liberation of the 20th century

Combatants motivated by ideology and desire for self-determination

A peoples war

war of conquest
War of Conquest

Americans fighting to free themselves of British rule

First nations fighting to free themselves of Colonial Rule

Siding with those perceived to be in their best interests

native americans
Native Americans

Outside body politic of white America

White racism and Prejudice = lack of political access

Nations sovereign, independent nations, did not want to operate with the American system or world – preserve territory, political, economic and social institutions of Nations

Wars of resistance continued


Many nations allied with the British recognizing threat of rebel victory

Continued removal and genocide

Once no longer useful British abandoned tribes to the mercy of the Rebels

Many attempted to form ill devised and honored treaties with the United States