Towards Revolution in China - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Towards Revolution in China

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  1. Towards Revolution in China

  2. China in the Early 1900s • Qing Dynasty in power • Foreign countries controlled trade and economic resources • People divided between those who wanted to modernize and those who wanted to go back to traditional ways

  3. Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty • Kuomintang- Nationalist Party wanted modernization • They overthrew the last emperor of the Qing dynasty in 1912 • Sun Yixian ruled for six weeks because he didn’t have popular support • Yuan Shikai took over and began ruling as a dictator, which people resented • Shikai died in 1916 and chaos erupted • Peasants suffered most in uneasy times in China

  4. World War I and the May Fourth Movement • China joined the allies during the war but didn’t get anything from it • Treaty of Versailles gave Japan former German territory in China • May 4, 1919 demonstrations against the Treaty of Versailles and Europeans • Demonstrations spread to other cities and is named the May Fourth Movement • Many people turn against the nationalists and join the communists

  5. Communist Party in China • Young intellectuals viewed Soviet Union under Lenin a model for political and economic change • 1921 Chinese Communist Party formed. Mao Zedong one of its founders • Lenin helps the communist party • Kuomintang under Sun Yixian allies itself with the communists out of frustration with the west

  6. Chiang Kai-shek • Sun Yixian died in 1925 and Chiang Kai-shek took over • 1927 moved against the communists in the Shanghai Massacre • 1928 Kai-shek became president of the Nationalist Republic of China • Kai-shek not good to the peasants, who began to turn to the communists for help

  7. Civil War • 1930 Nationalists and Communists in bloody civil war • 1934 Long March- communists march 6,000 miles north and regroup • 1937 Japan invaded China and the Nationalists needed the help of the Communists, so war between them suspended

  8. Indian Nationalism 1885 Indian Congress Party led way for Indian independence Indian participation in WW1 led them to demand more from British but British didn’t keep their promises Amritsar Massacre- 400 Indians killed and 1200 wounded- prompted calls for revolution all over India

  9. Mohandas Ghandi and Nonviolence • Satyagraha- “truth force”- civil disobedience • 1920 Congress Party endorses civil disobedience approach to weaken British authority and economic power • 1930 demonstration against Salt Acts covered widely by journalists

  10. Great Britain Grants India Self-Rule 1935 Government of India Act Disagreement between Hindus and Muslims about the type of country India should be

  11. Nationalism in Southwest Asia Turkey-1922- Mustafa Kemal overthrew last Ottoman Sultan and in 1923 became president of New Republic of Turkey Persia became Iran – 1921 revolt led Reza Shah Pahlavi to come to power and he began to modernize 1932 Saudi Arabia under Ibn Saud also modernized but within Islamic structure Oil resources in southwest Asia spur competition between western powers