Becoming Human. Human vs. Chimpanzee. Robust Australopithecines ( Paranthropus ). Gracile Australopithecines . Homo Habilis vs. Homo Rudolphensis. Homo erectus (ergaster). Homo idaltu (160,000 years ago). Homo Neanderthal ensis vs. Homo sapiens. Human Evolution.
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(A) Pan troglodytes, chimpanzee, modern(B) Australopithecus africanus, STS 5, 2.6 My(C) Australopithecus africanus, STS 71, 2.5 My(D) Homo habilis, KNM-ER 1813, 1.9 My(E) Homo habilis, OH24, 1.8 My(F) Homo rudolfensis, KNM-ER 1470, 1.8 My(G) Homo erectus, Dmanisi cranium D2700, 1.75 My
(H) Homo ergaster (early H. erectus), KNM-ER 3733, 1.75 My(I) Homo heidelbergensis, "Rhodesia man," 300,000 - 125,000 y(J) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, La Ferrassie 1, 70,000 y(K) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, La Chappelle-aux-Saints, 60,000 y(L) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Le Moustier, 45,000 y(M) Homo sapiens sapiens, Cro-Magnon I, 30,000 y(N) Homo sapiens sapiens, modern
Reconstruction of Australopithecine
Deinotherium ("terrible beast"), also called the Hoe tusker, was a gigantic prehistoric relative of modern-day elephants. Third larges land mammal known to have existed.
Dinofelis ("terrible cat") is a genus of saber-toothed cat.
Artist rendition of H. habilis.
ER-1813 – Homo habilis
The Oldowan is the first known industrial complex in prehistory. It takes its name from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Oldowan tool use is estimated to have begun about 2.5 million years ago (mya), lasting to as late as 0.5 mya.
It is thought that Oldowan tools were produced by several species of hominids ranging from Australopithecus to early Homo.
Photograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
Turkana Boy (KNM-WT 15000): a nearly complete skeleton of an 11 or 12 year old boy who died approximately 1.5 million years ago near Lake Turkana in Kenya by Kamoya Kimeu and Richard Leakey in 1984.
Less hair on body = wearing of furs, other clothing.
Wearing of furs = ability to live further north.
Quick adaptation to environment without physical changes.
Culture is main reason H. erectus was so successful
organization for hunting
ability to protect against predators
control of fire?
tools (Acheulean industry)Homo ergaster – 1.9mya to 27k yBP
Distribution of H. erectus
Range of Homo neanderthalensis
The skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
First reconstruction of Neanderthal man.
Top: Reconstruction of Neandertal burial from Shanidar cave
Bottom: Mousterian tools
Neanderthal versus Homo sapiens
Top: Straw Hut
Left: Mammoth bone hut
Bottom: Tool progression
Venus of Willendorf. Discovered in 1908 in Austria and dated to approximately 23,000 years ago.
Cave paintings from 20,000 years ago at Vallon-Pont-d’Arc in southern France (left) and from Lascaux, in southwest France