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How to Calculate Your Grade. You have completed 500 out of 700 total points Add together: Lecture exam 1 Lecture exam 2 Lab exam 1 Lab exam 2 Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest) Divide by 500 REMEMBER:

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How to calculate your grade
How to Calculate Your Grade

  • You have completed 500 out of 700 total points

  • Add together:

    • Lecture exam 1

    • Lecture exam 2

    • Lab exam 1

    • Lab exam 2

    • Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest)

  • Divide by 500

  • REMEMBER:

    • You must have at least a “C” = 68 in both lab and lecture separately to pass course


How to calculate the number of points you need to pass
How to Calculate the Number of points you need to pass

  • You need a total of 476 out of 700 points to get a C

  • Take the total number of points you just calculated (the sum of 4 exams and quiz average) and subtract it from 476

  • The number you have is the total number of points you need

  • If you divide that number by 2, you will see the approximate grade you’ll need on lab exam 3 and lecture exam 3.

  • REMEMBER: the rules from previous page apply

    • Have to have at least C in lecture and lab separately


Organs of the abdomen

Organs of the Abdomen

Systems: Urinary and Digestive


Urinary system
Urinary System

  • Kidneys

    • Purify blood

  • Ureters

    • Drain urine from kidney to bladder

  • Urinary Bladder

    • Store urine

  • Urethra

    • Drain urine from bladder to outside body

pg 5


Kidneys major excretory organs
Kidneys: major excretory organs

  • Remove toxins, metabolic waste, excess H2O, ions

    • Urea, uric acid, creatinin

  • Regulates volume + makeup of blood

    • Maintains balance between

      • Salts and water

      • Acids and bases


Kidneys gross anatomy
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy

  • Located superior lumbar region

  • Posterior abdominal wall (T12-L3)

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Hilus

  • Adrenal Gland: superomedial to kidney

  • Renal Artery + Vein

  • Innervation: branches of renal plexus

pg 648


Kidneys gross anatomy1
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy

  • Renal Capsule

    • Layer of tough CT

    • Maintains shape

    • Prevents spread of infection

  • Adipose Capsule

    • External to renal cap

    • Perirenal fat

    • Surrounded by fascia

    • Keeps in place, cushions

  • Pararenal Fat

    • External to adipose cap

    • Keeps in place, cushions

pg 649


Kidney internal anatomy
Kidney: Internal Anatomy

  • Cortex

    • Superficial

    • Light, granular

    • Part of functional unit

  • Medulla

    • Deep layer

    • Darker

    • Pyramid-cone shape

    • Contain collecting tubule collect urine

Pg 650


Kidney internal anatomy1
Kidney: Internal Anatomy

  • Medullary Pyramid

    • Base: against cortex

    • Apex: inward

      • Papilla = tip

      • Drips urine into minor calyx

  • Minor Calyx (calices)

    • Cup-shaped divisions of major calices

    • Surround papilla of pyramid

  • Major Calyx (calices)

    • Larger cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis

  • Renal Pelvis

    • Flat expansion of ureter

    • Collects urine

Pg 650


Kidney microscopic anatomy
Kidney: Microscopic Anatomy

  • Functional Unit

    • Uriniferous Tubule

      • Nephron

      • Collecting tubule

    • Waste is filtered out

    • Waste products formed

    • Located in lobes of kidneys

pg 652


Ureters
Ureters

  • Slender tubes transport urine

  • Run from kidneys to bladder

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Continuation of renal pelvis

  • Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow

  • Increased pressure in bladder closes distal end of ureter

pg 648


Ureters 3 layers
Ureters: 3 Layers

  • External: Adventitia

    • CT

  • Middle: Muscularis

    • Smooth Muscle

    • Inner Longitudinal

    • Outer Circular

    • External longitudinal (on distal third)

    • Peristalsis

  • Inner: Mucosa

    • Transitional epithelium


Bladder
Bladder

  • Muscular sac store and expel urine

  • Location

    • On pelvic floor

    • Posterior

      • Pubic symphysis

    • Anterior

      • Males = rectum

      • Females = vagina, uterus

  • Collapses + Expands

    • Full  into abdominal cav

    • Emptystays in pelvic cav

  • Supplied by branches of internal iliac arteries + veins

  • Innervated = branches of hypogastric plexus

pg 648


Bladder internal anatomy
Bladder: Internal Anatomy

  • 3 Layers

    • Mucosa = transitional epithelium & lamina propria

    • Detrusor Muscle: smooth muscle

      • Inner/Outer longitudinal, Middle circular

    • Fibrous Adventitia = CT

      • Parietal peritoneum on superior surface instead

trigone

pg 662


Urethra
Urethra

  • Drains urine from bladder to outside

  • Female = short tube

  • Males = long tube

    • Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy (penile) portions

    • Also carries semen

  • Internal Urethral Sphincter

    • Between bladder + urethra

    • Thickening of detrusor (smooth muscle)

  • External Urethral Sphincter

    • Within urogenital diaphragm

    • Skeletal muscle = voluntary control urination

  • External Urethral Orifice

    • Males = end of penile urethra

    • Females = anterior to vaginal opening, posterior to clitoris



Micturition urination
Micturition = Urination

  • Emptying bladder

    • Stretch receptors in bladder respond when bladder full

    • Parasympathetic signals detrusor muscle to contract and internal urinary sphincter to open (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination)

    • Other brain receptors can inhibit urination by relaxing detrusor, and keep external urinary sphincter closed

    • Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall muscles increases abdominal pressure

    • Voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

See pg 663


Digestion system
Digestion System

  • Alimentary Canal

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Stomach

    • Small Intestine

    • Large Intestine

  • Accessory Organs

    • Teeth, Tongue

    • Salivary Glands

    • Gallbladder

    • Liver

    • Pancreas

pg 5


Food processing activities
Food Processing Activities

  • Ingestion: taking food into mouth

  • Propulsion: food moves through gut

    • Swallowing + Peristalsis

  • Mechanical Digestion: breakdown of food

    • Chewing, Churning, Segmentation

  • Chemical Digestion: chemical breakdown

    • Enzymes

  • Absorption: Digestive end products into blood

  • Defecation: Removal of waste products


Alimentary canal wall
Alimentary Canal Wall

  • Internal = Mucosa + Submucosa

    • Epithelium

    • Lamina propria:

      • contains MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

    • Muscularis mucosae

    • Submucosa = CT w/elastic fibers, nerves, vessels

  • Middle = Muscularis Externa

    • Inner circular layer

    • Outer longitudinal layer

    • Creates sphincters

  • Outer = Serosa or Adventitia


Innervation of alimentary canal
Innervation of Alimentary Canal

  • 2 Plexuses: Myenteric & Submucosal

    • Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, Visceral Sensory fibers

  • Enteric Nervous System

    • 100 million neurons in walls of alimentary canal = internal system

    • Within above plexuses

    • Independent reflex arcs

    • Controls glandular secretion, peristalsis, segmentation

    • Autonomic Nervous System speeds up or slows activity controlled by enteric system


Stomach
Stomach

  • “J” shape

  • Cardiac Region

    • Junction esophagus

    • Cardiac sphincter (Gastroesophageal)

  • Fundus (“dome”)

    • Under diaphragm

  • Body

    • Large, middle part

  • Pylorus

    • Distal portion

    • Pyloric sphincter

  • Greater Curvature

  • Lesser Curvature

Pg 624


Internal anatomy of stomach
Internal Anatomy of Stomach

  • Mucosa

    • Rugae: mucosal folds allow expansion

    • Many intrinsic glands

      • Goblet cells

      • Gastric glands

    • Typical Submucosa

  • Muscularis externa

    • Oblique layer

    • Circular layer

      • Pyloric sphincter

    • Longitudinal layer

  • Serosa

pg 624


Function of stomach
Function of Stomach

  • Temporary storage of chyme

  • Breakdown begins

    • Churn, segmentation

    • Pepsin proteins

  • Absorption

    • H2O, electrolytes

    • Alcohol, other drugs

  • Stays about 4 hours

  • Hold from1.5-4 liters


Small intestine parts functions
Small Intestine: Parts + Functions

  • Parts

    • Duodenum = proximal (5%)

    • Jejunum = middle (~40%)

    • Ileum = distal (~55%)

  • Majority of enzymatic digestion

    • Bile: emulsifier (gallbladder, liver)

    • Enzymes (pancreas)

  • Almost all nutrient absorption

  • Segmentation

    • Moves chyme around to increase contact with intestine walls

  • Food takes about 3-6 hours to move through

  • 2.7- 6 meters


Small intestine internal features
Small Intestine: Internal Features

  • Intestinal flora: produce vitamin K

  • Simple columnar epithelium w/many modifications for absorption

  • Lymph tissue in submucosa

  • Muscularis externa has 2 layers

  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus

  • Arterial supply:

    • Superior mesenteric

    • Rt (cranial) pancreaticoduodenal


Small intestine modifications of epithelium for absorption
Small Intestine:Modifications of epithelium for absorption

  • Length

    • Increase surface area

  • Plicae circularis

    • Transverse ridges of mucosa

    • Increase surface area

    • Slow movement of chyme

  • Villi

    • Move chyme, increase contact

    • Contain lacteals: remove fat

  • Microvilli:

    • Increase surface area

  • Modifications decrease distally

pg 629


Small intestine
Small Intestine

  • Duodenum:

    • short, straight

    • Mostly retroperitoneal

  • Jejunum & Ileum:

    • highly coiled

    • Fewer modifications

    • Hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavity

    • Mesentery Arcades

      • Arteries + veins

      • Nerves

      • Store fat

Pg 614


Large intestine
Large Intestine

  • Cecum

  • Vermiform appendix

  • Colon

    • Ascending

    • Transverse

    • Descending

    • Sigmoid

  • Rectum

  • Anal Canal

pg 631


Large intestine1
Large Intestine

  • Functions:

    • Absorb water and electrolytes

    • Form, store and expel feces from body

  • Internal Features:

    • Intestinal flora

    • No intestinal villi or modifications for absorption

    • Many goblet cells

    • Simple columnar epithelium except lower half of anal canal

    • Significant Lymph tissue in mucosa & submucosa

    • Muscularis mucosae has 2 layers

  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus


Colon external features
Colon: External Features

  • Taeniae coli

    • 3 longitudinal strips

    • thickening of longitudinal muscle

    • maintain muscle tone

    • create haustra

  • Haustra

    • saclike divisions

  • Epiploic Appendages

    • fat-filled pouches

    • significance unknown

pg 631


Cecum vermiform appendix
Cecum + Vermiform Appendix

  • Cecum

    • sac-like, blind pouch

  • Ileocecal valve

    • raised edges of mucosa

    • prevents feces going back into ileum

  • Vermiform Appendix

    • same layers

    • blind tube opens into cecum

    • masses of lymph tissue

pg 631


Colon
Colon

  • Ascending colon

    • Right side

    • Hepatic flexure (= right colic flexure)

  • Transverse colon

    • Across cavity

  • Descending colon

    • Left side

    • Splenic flexure (= left colic flexure )

  • Sigmoid colon

    • Enters pelvis

    • “S” shape

pg 631


Colon function
Colon: Function

  • Absorb H2O and electrolytes

  • Some digestion by bacteria

  • Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x day)

  • Moves through in 12-24 hours

  • 1.5 meters


Rectum anal canal
Rectum + Anal Canal

  • Rectum

    • descends into pelvis

    • no teniae coli

    • longitudinal muscle layer complete

    • rectal valves

  • Anal Canal

    • passes through levator ani muscle

    • releases mucus to lubricate feces

    • Internal anal sphincter

      • involuntary, smooth m.

    • External anal sphincter

      • voluntary, skeletal m.

    • Stratified squamosal epithelium at lower half

pg 632


Defecation reflex
Defecation Reflex

  • Stretching of rectum wall initiates reflex

  • Spinal cord - parasympathetic signals sigmoid colon + rectum to contract + anal sphincter to relax (involuntary)

  • If not ready-reflex ends- rectum relaxes

  • Reflex initiated again until you go!

  • Contraction of abdominal muscles, levator ani + diaphragm assists defecation (voluntary)


Liver

pg 610

Liver

  • Largest gland (3 lbs)

  • Location

    • Upper Right Quadrant

    • Mostly under ribcage

  • Highly vascular

  • Some functions

    • produce bile

    • pick up glucose

    • detoxify poison, drugs

    • make blood proteins

    • many others

pg 635


Liver external features
Liver: External Features

  • Diaphragmatic surface

    • Right lobe (larger)

    • Left lobe

    • Falciform ligament

    • Fissure between

  • Visceral surface

    • Quadrate lobe

    • Caudate lobe

    • Both part of left lobe

pg 635


Liver visceral surface
Liver: Visceral Surface

  • Hepatic Vein (into inferior vena cava)

  • Porta Hepatis

    • Hepatic Artery (from abdominal aorta )

    • Hepatic Portal Vein

      • Carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach + intestines to liver

      • Portal system = 2 capillary beds!

    • Hepatic Ducts (carry bile)

pg 636


Gallbladder
Gallbladder

  • Muscular sac

  • Between right + quadrate liver lobes

  • Bile is stored + concentrated

  • Bile: breaks down fats = emulsification

  • Bile

    • Produced by liver

    • Stored in gallbladder

pg 610


Gallbladder continued
Gallbladder continued

  • Mucosa & lamina propria

    • Simple columnar epithelium

    • Expandable mucosal folds

  • Smooth muscle layer

  • Thick connective tissue

    • Covered by serosa in places


Bile ducts
Bile Ducts

  • Cystic duct

    • carries bile from gallbladder

  • Hepatic duct

    • carries bile from liver

  • Common Bile duct

    • joins cystic and hepatic

    • carries bile into duodenum

pg 628


Movement of bile
Movement of Bile

  • Bile secreted by liver continuously

  • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

    • common bile + main pancreatic duct meet and enter duodenum

    • Sphincter of Oddi around it

    • closed when bile not needed for digestion

  • Bile then backs up into gallbladder via cystic duct

  • When needed gallbladder contracts, sphincters open

pg 628


Pancreas
Pancreas

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Gland

    • Exocrine

      • digestive enzymes

    • Endocrine

      • hormone insulin

      • hormone glucagon

  • Location

    • curve of duodenum

    • extends to spleen

pg 639


Ducts of pancreas
Ducts of Pancreas

  • Main Pancreatic duct

    • joins common bile duct

    • enters duodenum

    • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

  • Accessory Pancreatic duct

    • enters duodenum in other location

pg 628


Spleen
Spleen

  • Largest lymph organ

  • Highly vascular

  • Function

    • remove blood-borne antigens (immune)

    • remove and destroy old/damaged blood cells

    • stores blood platelets

    • In fetus: site of hematopoiesis

pg 639


Arterial blood supply to abdominal viscera
Arterial Blood Supply to Abdominal Viscera

  • All branches of Abdominal Aorta

  • Anastomoses

    • Left + Middle colic

    • Left + Right gastric

    • Left + Right gastroepiploic

    • Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal

    • Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar

  • STUDY HAND OUT! MUST KNOW WHAT SUPPLIES WHAT!!


Names give hints

Hepato = liver

Pancreatico = pancreas

Cystic = gallbladder

Gastro = stomach

Splenic = spleen

Adreno = adrenal gl

Lumbar = lumbar region

Epiploic = membrane-covered

Mesenteric = mesentery

Duodenal = duodenum

Ileo = ileum

Colic = colon

Rectal = rectum

Names give hints!