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How to Calculate Your Grade. You have completed 500 out of 700 total points Add together: Lecture exam 1 Lecture exam 2 Lab exam 1 Lab exam 2 Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest) Divide by 500 REMEMBER:

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Presentation Transcript
• You have completed 500 out of 700 total points
• Lecture exam 1
• Lecture exam 2
• Lab exam 1
• Lab exam 2
• Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest)
• Divide by 500
• REMEMBER:
• You must have at least a “C” = 68 in both lab and lecture separately to pass course
How to Calculate the Number of points you need to pass
• You need a total of 476 out of 700 points to get a C
• Take the total number of points you just calculated (the sum of 4 exams and quiz average) and subtract it from 476
• The number you have is the total number of points you need
• If you divide that number by 2, you will see the approximate grade you’ll need on lab exam 3 and lecture exam 3.
• REMEMBER: the rules from previous page apply
• Have to have at least C in lecture and lab separately

### Organs of the Abdomen

Systems: Urinary and Digestive

Urinary System
• Kidneys
• Purify blood
• Ureters
• Drain urine from kidney to bladder
• Store urine
• Urethra
• Drain urine from bladder to outside body

pg 5

Kidneys: major excretory organs
• Remove toxins, metabolic waste, excess H2O, ions
• Urea, uric acid, creatinin
• Regulates volume + makeup of blood
• Maintains balance between
• Salts and water
• Acids and bases
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy
• Located superior lumbar region
• Posterior abdominal wall (T12-L3)
• Retroperitoneal
• Hilus
• Adrenal Gland: superomedial to kidney
• Renal Artery + Vein
• Innervation: branches of renal plexus

pg 648

Kidneys: Gross Anatomy
• Renal Capsule
• Layer of tough CT
• Maintains shape
• External to renal cap
• Perirenal fat
• Surrounded by fascia
• Keeps in place, cushions
• Pararenal Fat
• Keeps in place, cushions

pg 649

Kidney: Internal Anatomy
• Cortex
• Superficial
• Light, granular
• Part of functional unit
• Medulla
• Deep layer
• Darker
• Pyramid-cone shape
• Contain collecting tubule collect urine

Pg 650

Kidney: Internal Anatomy
• Medullary Pyramid
• Base: against cortex
• Apex: inward
• Papilla = tip
• Drips urine into minor calyx
• Minor Calyx (calices)
• Cup-shaped divisions of major calices
• Surround papilla of pyramid
• Major Calyx (calices)
• Larger cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis
• Renal Pelvis
• Flat expansion of ureter
• Collects urine

Pg 650

Kidney: Microscopic Anatomy
• Functional Unit
• Uriniferous Tubule
• Nephron
• Collecting tubule
• Waste is filtered out
• Waste products formed
• Located in lobes of kidneys

pg 652

Ureters
• Slender tubes transport urine
• Run from kidneys to bladder
• Retroperitoneal
• Continuation of renal pelvis
• Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow
• Increased pressure in bladder closes distal end of ureter

pg 648

Ureters: 3 Layers
• CT
• Middle: Muscularis
• Smooth Muscle
• Inner Longitudinal
• Outer Circular
• External longitudinal (on distal third)
• Peristalsis
• Inner: Mucosa
• Transitional epithelium
• Muscular sac store and expel urine
• Location
• On pelvic floor
• Posterior
• Pubic symphysis
• Anterior
• Males = rectum
• Females = vagina, uterus
• Collapses + Expands
• Full  into abdominal cav
• Emptystays in pelvic cav
• Supplied by branches of internal iliac arteries + veins
• Innervated = branches of hypogastric plexus

pg 648

• 3 Layers
• Mucosa = transitional epithelium & lamina propria
• Detrusor Muscle: smooth muscle
• Inner/Outer longitudinal, Middle circular
• Parietal peritoneum on superior surface instead

trigone

pg 662

Urethra
• Drains urine from bladder to outside
• Female = short tube
• Males = long tube
• Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy (penile) portions
• Also carries semen
• Internal Urethral Sphincter
• Thickening of detrusor (smooth muscle)
• External Urethral Sphincter
• Within urogenital diaphragm
• Skeletal muscle = voluntary control urination
• External Urethral Orifice
• Males = end of penile urethra
• Females = anterior to vaginal opening, posterior to clitoris
Micturition = Urination
• Parasympathetic signals detrusor muscle to contract and internal urinary sphincter to open (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination)
• Other brain receptors can inhibit urination by relaxing detrusor, and keep external urinary sphincter closed
• Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall muscles increases abdominal pressure
• Voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

See pg 663

Digestion System
• Alimentary Canal
• Mouth
• Pharynx
• Esophagus
• Stomach
• Small Intestine
• Large Intestine
• Accessory Organs
• Teeth, Tongue
• Salivary Glands
• Liver
• Pancreas

pg 5

Food Processing Activities
• Ingestion: taking food into mouth
• Propulsion: food moves through gut
• Swallowing + Peristalsis
• Mechanical Digestion: breakdown of food
• Chewing, Churning, Segmentation
• Chemical Digestion: chemical breakdown
• Enzymes
• Absorption: Digestive end products into blood
• Defecation: Removal of waste products
Alimentary Canal Wall
• Internal = Mucosa + Submucosa
• Epithelium
• Lamina propria:
• contains MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
• Muscularis mucosae
• Submucosa = CT w/elastic fibers, nerves, vessels
• Middle = Muscularis Externa
• Inner circular layer
• Outer longitudinal layer
• Creates sphincters
• Outer = Serosa or Adventitia
Innervation of Alimentary Canal
• 2 Plexuses: Myenteric & Submucosal
• Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, Visceral Sensory fibers
• Enteric Nervous System
• 100 million neurons in walls of alimentary canal = internal system
• Within above plexuses
• Independent reflex arcs
• Controls glandular secretion, peristalsis, segmentation
• Autonomic Nervous System speeds up or slows activity controlled by enteric system
Stomach
• “J” shape
• Cardiac Region
• Junction esophagus
• Cardiac sphincter (Gastroesophageal)
• Fundus (“dome”)
• Under diaphragm
• Body
• Large, middle part
• Pylorus
• Distal portion
• Pyloric sphincter
• Greater Curvature
• Lesser Curvature

Pg 624

Internal Anatomy of Stomach
• Mucosa
• Rugae: mucosal folds allow expansion
• Many intrinsic glands
• Goblet cells
• Gastric glands
• Typical Submucosa
• Muscularis externa
• Oblique layer
• Circular layer
• Pyloric sphincter
• Longitudinal layer
• Serosa

pg 624

Function of Stomach
• Temporary storage of chyme
• Breakdown begins
• Churn, segmentation
• Pepsin proteins
• Absorption
• H2O, electrolytes
• Alcohol, other drugs
• Hold from1.5-4 liters
Small Intestine: Parts + Functions
• Parts
• Duodenum = proximal (5%)
• Jejunum = middle (~40%)
• Ileum = distal (~55%)
• Majority of enzymatic digestion
• Enzymes (pancreas)
• Almost all nutrient absorption
• Segmentation
• Moves chyme around to increase contact with intestine walls
• Food takes about 3-6 hours to move through
• 2.7- 6 meters
Small Intestine: Internal Features
• Intestinal flora: produce vitamin K
• Simple columnar epithelium w/many modifications for absorption
• Lymph tissue in submucosa
• Muscularis externa has 2 layers
• Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus
• Arterial supply:
• Superior mesenteric
• Rt (cranial) pancreaticoduodenal
Small Intestine:Modifications of epithelium for absorption
• Length
• Increase surface area
• Plicae circularis
• Transverse ridges of mucosa
• Increase surface area
• Slow movement of chyme
• Villi
• Move chyme, increase contact
• Contain lacteals: remove fat
• Microvilli:
• Increase surface area
• Modifications decrease distally

pg 629

Small Intestine
• Duodenum:
• short, straight
• Mostly retroperitoneal
• Jejunum & Ileum:
• highly coiled
• Fewer modifications
• Hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavity
• Arteries + veins
• Nerves
• Store fat

Pg 614

Large Intestine
• Cecum
• Vermiform appendix
• Colon
• Ascending
• Transverse
• Descending
• Sigmoid
• Rectum
• Anal Canal

pg 631

Large Intestine
• Functions:
• Absorb water and electrolytes
• Form, store and expel feces from body
• Internal Features:
• Intestinal flora
• No intestinal villi or modifications for absorption
• Many goblet cells
• Simple columnar epithelium except lower half of anal canal
• Significant Lymph tissue in mucosa & submucosa
• Muscularis mucosae has 2 layers
• Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus
Colon: External Features
• Taeniae coli
• 3 longitudinal strips
• thickening of longitudinal muscle
• maintain muscle tone
• create haustra
• Haustra
• saclike divisions
• Epiploic Appendages
• fat-filled pouches
• significance unknown

pg 631

Cecum + Vermiform Appendix
• Cecum
• sac-like, blind pouch
• Ileocecal valve
• raised edges of mucosa
• prevents feces going back into ileum
• Vermiform Appendix
• same layers
• blind tube opens into cecum
• masses of lymph tissue

pg 631

Colon
• Ascending colon
• Right side
• Hepatic flexure (= right colic flexure)
• Transverse colon
• Across cavity
• Descending colon
• Left side
• Splenic flexure (= left colic flexure )
• Sigmoid colon
• Enters pelvis
• “S” shape

pg 631

Colon: Function
• Absorb H2O and electrolytes
• Some digestion by bacteria
• Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x day)
• Moves through in 12-24 hours
• 1.5 meters
Rectum + Anal Canal
• Rectum
• descends into pelvis
• no teniae coli
• longitudinal muscle layer complete
• rectal valves
• Anal Canal
• passes through levator ani muscle
• releases mucus to lubricate feces
• Internal anal sphincter
• involuntary, smooth m.
• External anal sphincter
• voluntary, skeletal m.
• Stratified squamosal epithelium at lower half

pg 632

Defecation Reflex
• Stretching of rectum wall initiates reflex
• Spinal cord - parasympathetic signals sigmoid colon + rectum to contract + anal sphincter to relax (involuntary)
• If not ready-reflex ends- rectum relaxes
• Reflex initiated again until you go!
• Contraction of abdominal muscles, levator ani + diaphragm assists defecation (voluntary)

pg 610

Liver
• Largest gland (3 lbs)
• Location
• Mostly under ribcage
• Highly vascular
• Some functions
• produce bile
• pick up glucose
• detoxify poison, drugs
• make blood proteins
• many others

pg 635

Liver: External Features
• Diaphragmatic surface
• Right lobe (larger)
• Left lobe
• Falciform ligament
• Fissure between
• Visceral surface
• Caudate lobe
• Both part of left lobe

pg 635

Liver: Visceral Surface
• Hepatic Vein (into inferior vena cava)
• Porta Hepatis
• Hepatic Artery (from abdominal aorta )
• Hepatic Portal Vein
• Carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach + intestines to liver
• Portal system = 2 capillary beds!
• Hepatic Ducts (carry bile)

pg 636

• Muscular sac
• Between right + quadrate liver lobes
• Bile is stored + concentrated
• Bile: breaks down fats = emulsification
• Bile
• Produced by liver

pg 610

• Mucosa & lamina propria
• Simple columnar epithelium
• Expandable mucosal folds
• Smooth muscle layer
• Thick connective tissue
• Covered by serosa in places
Bile Ducts
• Cystic duct
• Hepatic duct
• carries bile from liver
• Common Bile duct
• joins cystic and hepatic
• carries bile into duodenum

pg 628

Movement of Bile
• Bile secreted by liver continuously
• Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla
• common bile + main pancreatic duct meet and enter duodenum
• Sphincter of Oddi around it
• closed when bile not needed for digestion
• Bile then backs up into gallbladder via cystic duct
• When needed gallbladder contracts, sphincters open

pg 628

Pancreas
• Retroperitoneal
• Gland
• Exocrine
• digestive enzymes
• Endocrine
• hormone insulin
• hormone glucagon
• Location
• curve of duodenum
• extends to spleen

pg 639

Ducts of Pancreas
• Main Pancreatic duct
• joins common bile duct
• enters duodenum
• Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla
• Accessory Pancreatic duct
• enters duodenum in other location

pg 628

Spleen
• Largest lymph organ
• Highly vascular
• Function
• remove blood-borne antigens (immune)
• remove and destroy old/damaged blood cells
• stores blood platelets
• In fetus: site of hematopoiesis

pg 639

Arterial Blood Supply to Abdominal Viscera
• All branches of Abdominal Aorta
• Anastomoses
• Left + Middle colic
• Left + Right gastric
• Left + Right gastroepiploic
• Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal
• Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar
• STUDY HAND OUT! MUST KNOW WHAT SUPPLIES WHAT!!
Hepato = liver

Pancreatico = pancreas

Gastro = stomach

Splenic = spleen

Lumbar = lumbar region

Epiploic = membrane-covered

Mesenteric = mesentery

Duodenal = duodenum

Ileo = ileum

Colic = colon

Rectal = rectum

Names give hints!