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HI204 Athens , Alexander the Great and Cleopatra Scope of the course PowerPoint Presentation
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HI204 Athens , Alexander the Great and Cleopatra Scope of the course

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HI204 Athens , Alexander the Great and Cleopatra Scope of the course

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  1. Welcome to HI204 Athens, Alexander the Great and Cleopatra/www.skidmore.edu/classics/courses/2012spring/hi204

  2. HI204Athens, Alexander the Great and CleopatraScope of the course • Perikles, Athens, Sparta & the Peloponnesian War • 432/1-404/3 BCE (dating systems) • 4th century before Philip and Alexander • 404/3-359/8 BCE • Philip and Alexander • 359/8-323/2 BCE (323/2: death of Alexander) • Hellenistic age • 323/2-31 BCE (spread of Hellenism) • Cleopatra, Caesar, Antony and Augustus • 100-31 BCE (end of Greek political hegemony)

  3. HI204Athens, Alexander the Great and Cleopatra • Special events • 2/10-2/29: Athens in the Balance • 2/7 (Tues.): Homerathon! • 2/17 (Fri.): performance of Penelope by Ellen McLaughlin • 4/14 (Sat.): trip to NYC & the Metropolitan Museum of Art • 4/20 (Fri.): Parilia at Skidmore

  4. HI204Athens, Alexander the Great and Cleopatra • Syllabus • Overview: Skills and Academic Integrity • Texts • Requirements • Schedule • Syllabus Academics / Classics / Spring 2012 Courses / HI204

  5. Historical sources for Greek history • Historians: extant works • Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War(432-411) • Xenophon’s Hellenica, Apology (411-362) • Sources for the lives of Philip and Alexander (359-323) • Polybius Histories (220-146) • Plutarch Lives (146-31)

  6. Poetic sources for Greek history • Epic poets • Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey (ca. 750-700) • Tragic poets • Aeschylus 525/4-456/5 (7 of 90 extant) • Sophocles 496/5-406/5 (7 of 123 extant) • Euripides 491/0-406/5 (19 of 91 extant) • Comic poets • Aristophanes 461/0-386/5 (11 of 40 extant) • Hellenistic poets • Callimachus 310-240 (Alexandrian librarian) • Aitia(elegiac), Epigrammata(short witticisms), Pinakes (library catalog) • Aratus 315/310-240 • Phaenomena (astronomical) • Apollonius 270?-246/5? • Argonautica (epic) • Theocritus 3rd century • Idylls (bucolic)

  7. Philosophical sources for Greek history • Classical philosophers • Socrates 469-399 • Plato 428/7-348/7 • Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo • Aristotle 384-322 • Athenian Constitution, Politics • Hellenistic schools of philosophy School Founder Origins • Cynicism Antisthenes 5th-4th centuries • Platonism Speusippus 4th century • Aristotelianism Theophrastus 4th-3rd centuries • Epicureanism Epicurus 4th-3rd centuries • Stoicism Zeno 4th-3rd centuries

  8. Material sources for Greek history:architecture, sculpture, vase painting • Architecture • often can be dated • internal ideologies • evidence of wealth • evidence of skill • Sculpture, vase painting • -can be dated stylistically • reveals social customs • high level of sophistication

  9. Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: inscriptions • Epigraphy: inscriptions on stone, metal, terracotta – durable materials • typically contemporary • often fragmentary • nearly useless if not dated • Genres • poetry, laws, decrees, votes • treaties, dedications, honors

  10. Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: papyri • Primary medium for … day-to-day activities • correspondence • petitions • edicts • receipts • Limited survival of texts • Aristotle’s Athenian Constitution • Oxyrhynchos Historian • many fragments of (un)known works

  11. Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: coins • Numismatics • post 550 BCE and the creation of coinage • limited use as propaganda, so little internal evidence • long periods of usage, so broad range of dates

  12. Literature Congruence Epigraphy Archaeology All sources for Greek history:literary and material • Context is key • Congruence is rare • Historians must draw upon all sources to complete the picture

  13. Periodization of Greek history

  14. Altitude High Low Topographic map of Greece, the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor

  15. Background: Archaic GreeceExtent of Greek colonization: 750-480 BCE

  16. PanhellenismOlympia, stadion, starting line, 5th c. BCE (traditional date: 776 BCE)

  17. Panhellenism: Delphi, Pythiaand Temple of Apollo, 6th and 4th cs. BCE

  18. Synoikism of Attica  Athens

  19. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League Corinthian Gulf Delphi Isthmus ACHAEA Athens Corinth ELIS ATTICA Olympia ARGOLID ARCADIA Argos Saronic Gulf PELOPONNESOS LACONIA Aegean Sea MESSENIA Sparta

  20. Commerce: Corinth & Temple of Apollo (6th c. BCE)

  21. Warfare: trireme and hoplitesThe emergence of the polis

  22. Performance: Theater of Dionysus,5th-4th cs. BCE

  23. Political systems: democracy in Athens Western side of the Athenian agora, looking north Bema (speaker’s platform) at the Pnyx, meeting place of the ekklesia (citizens’ assembly) Model of the statue group of the 10 eponymous heroeslocated on the western side of the Athenian agora

  24. Pnyx and the ἐκκλησία (ekklêsia):decrees, laws, ambassadors, ostracism

  25. Heroic past: Plain of MarathonAthens & Plataea vs. Persians, 490 BCE Marathon Bay Persian cavalry Persian fleet Persian camp Greek camp at sanctuary of Herakles Soros

  26. Heroic past: Leonidas of Sparta, 7000 hoplites:μολὼν λαβέ(molōnlabe: Plutarch Moralia 225c11)“Come and take [them]!”

  27. Heroic Past: Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE Greeks vs. Persians Mt. Aigaleos (Xerxes) Salamis Psyttaleia Phaleron

  28. Heroic Past: Unified Greece vs. Persians “Again, there is the Greek nation – the community of blood and language, temples and ritual, and our common customs; if Athens were to betray all this, it would not be well done …. So long as a single Athenian remains alive we will make no peace with Xerxes” (Herodotus Histories 8.144) • τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἐὸν ὅμαιμόν τε καὶ ὁμόγλωσσον καὶ θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι ἤθεά τε ὁμότροπα ... • to Hellênikon eon: “the Greek nation” (lit. “being Greek”)

  29. Pentekontaetia(50 years)479/8-432/1 BCE The wars between the wars, summarized by Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War1.87-118