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Welcome to HI204 Athens, Alexander the Great and Cleopatra /www.skidmore.edu/classics/courses/2010spring/hi204. HI204 Scope of the course. Perikles , Athens, Sparta & the Peloponnesian War 432/1-404/3 BCE 4 th century before Philip and Alexander 404/3-359/8 BCE Philip and Alexander

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slide1
Welcome to HI204 Athens, Alexander the Great and Cleopatra/www.skidmore.edu/classics/courses/2010spring/hi204
hi204 scope of the course
HI204 Scope of the course
  • Perikles, Athens, Sparta & the Peloponnesian War
    • 432/1-404/3 BCE
  • 4th century before Philip and Alexander
    • 404/3-359/8 BCE
  • Philip and Alexander
    • 359/8-323/2 BCE
  • Hellenistic age
    • 323/2-31 BCE
  • Cleopatra, Caesar, Antony and Augustus
    • 100-31 BCE
hi204 athens alexander the great and cleopatra
HI204: Athens, Alexander the Greatand Cleopatra
  • Highlights
    • Peloponnesian War
    • Athens in the Balance
    • lecture on February 15th on Homer by Prof. Ruth Scodel
    • Alexander the Great and Hellenization
    • Homerathon! on March 4th
    • Hellenistic literature, art, philosophy, mathematics, science, technology
    • building a ballista
    • Parilia, Union College, April 16th
    • Cleopatra, Rome and Greece
    • final project
hi204 athens alexander the great and cleopatra1
HI204: Athens, Alexander the Greatand Cleopatra
  • Syllabus
    • Overview: Skills and Academic Integrity
    • Texts
    • Requirements
    • Schedule
    • Blog
  • Syllabus
historical sources for greek history
Historical sources for Greek history
  • Historians: extant works
    • Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War(432-411)
    • Xenophon’s Hellenica, Apology (411-362)
    • Sources for the lives of Philip and Alexander (359-323)
    • Polybius Histories (220-146)
    • Plutarch Lives (146-31)
poetic sources for greek history
Poetic sources for Greek history
  • Epic poets
    • Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey (ca. 750-700)
  • Tragic poets
    • Aeschylus 525/4-456/5 (7 of 90 extant)
    • Sophocles 496/5-406/5 (7 of 123 extant)
    • Euripides 491/0-406/5 (19 of 91 extant)
  • Comic poets
    • Aristophanes 461/0-386/5 (11 of 40 extant)
  • Hellenistic poets
    • Callimachus 310-240 (Alexandrian librarian)
      • Aitia(elegiac), Epigrammata(short witticisms), Pinakes (library catalog)
    • Aratus 315/310-240
      • Phaenomena (astronomical)
    • Apollonius 270?-246/5?
      • Argonautica (epic)
    • Theocritus 3rd century
      • Idylls (bucolic)
philosophical sources for greek history
Philosophical sources for Greek history
  • Classical philosophers
    • Socrates 469-399
    • Plato 428/7-348/7
      • Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo
    • Aristotle 384-322
      • Athenian Constitution, Politics
  • Hellenistic schools of philosophy

School Founder Origins

    • Cynicism Antisthenes 5th-4th centuries
    • Platonism Speusippus 4th century
    • Aristotelianism Theophrastus 4th-3rd centuries
    • Epicureanism Epicurus 4th-3rd centuries
    • Stoicism Zeno 4th-3rd centuries
material sources for greek history architecture sculpture vase painting
Material sources for Greek history:architecture, sculpture, vase painting
  • Architecture
    • often can be dated
    • internal ideologies
    • evidence of wealth
    • evidence of skill
  • Sculpture, vase painting
    • -can be dated stylistically
    • reveals social customs
    • high level of sophistication
material sources for greek history archaeological evidence inscriptions
Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: inscriptions
  • Epigraphy: inscriptions on stone,

metal, terracotta – durable materials

    • typically contemporary
    • often fragmentary
    • nearly useless if not dated
  • Genres
    • poetry, laws, decrees, votes
    • treaties, dedications, honors
material sources for greek history archaeological evidence papyri
Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: papyri
  • Primary medium for …

day-to-day activities

    • correspondence
    • petitions
    • edicts
    • receipts
  • Limited survival of texts
    • Aristotle’s Athenian Constitution
    • Oxyrhynchos Historian
    • many fragments of (un)known works
material sources for greek history archaeological evidence coins
Material sources for Greek history:archaeological evidence: coins
  • Field of numismatics (<νομίζειν, to use according to νόμος – “law” or “custom”)
    • post 550 BCE
    • limited use as propaganda, so little internal evidence
    • long periods of usage, so broad range of dates
all sources for greek history literary and material
All sources for Greek history:literary and material
  • Context is key
  • Congruence is rare
  • Historians must draw upon all sources to complete the picture
slide14

Altitude

High

Low

Topographic map of Greece, the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor

sparta and the peloponnesian league
Sparta and the Peloponnesian League

Corinthian Gulf

Delphi

Isthmus

ACHAEA

Athens

Corinth

ELIS

ATTICA

Olympia

ARGOLID

ARCADIA

Argos

Saronic Gulf

PELOPONNESOS

LACONIA

Aegean Sea

MESSENIA

Sparta

political systems democracy in athens
Political systems: democracy in Athens

Western side of the Athenian agora, looking north

Bema (speaker’s platform) at the Pnyx, meeting place of the ekklesia (citizens’ assembly)

Model of the statue group of the 10 eponymous heroeslocated on the western side of the Athenian agora

heroic past plain of marathon athens plataea vs persians 490 bce
Heroic past: Plain of MarathonAthens & Plataea vs. Persians, 490 BCE

Marathon Bay

Persian cavalry

Persian fleet

Persian camp

Greek camp at sanctuary of Herakles

Soros

heroic past leonidas of sparta 7000 hoplites mol n labe plut moralia 225c11 come and take them
Heroic past: Leonidas of Sparta, 7000 hoplites:μολὼν λαβέ(molōnlabe: Plut. Moralia 225c11)“Come and take [them]!”
slide27

Heroic Past: Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE

Greeks vs. Persians

Mt. Aigaleos (Xerxes)

Salamis

Psyttaleia

Phaleron

heroic past unified greece vs persians
Heroic Past: Unified Greece vs. Persians

“Again, there is the Greek nation – the community of blood and language, temples and ritual, and our common customs; if Athens were to betray all this, it would not be well done …. So long as a single Athenian remains alive we will make no peace with Xerxes” (Hdt. 8.144)

  • τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἐὸν ὅμαιμόν τε καὶ ὁμόγλωσσον καὶ θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι ἤθεά τε ὁμότροπα ...
  • to Hellênikon eon: “the Greek nation” (lit. “being Greek”)
pentekontaetia 479 8 432 1 bce

Pentekontaetia: 479/8-432/1 BCE

Remnants of the Themistoclean wall, Kerameikos, Athens: 479-478 BCE

The wars between the wars: from Greeks vs. Persiansto Greeks vs. Greeks

Next class: Read Thuc. 1.87-1.118 (syllabus link)