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Logistics: what is it?

Logistics: what is it?

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Logistics: what is it?

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  1. Logistics: what is it? ETF Seminar: ‘How to recruit and organise in the logistics sector?’ Runö, Sweden 8-11 February 2009 Paula Hamilton, ITF hamilton_paula@itf.org.uk

  2. What is Logistics? • The work of logistics • Logistics in Central and Eastern Europe • Main Actors in Logistics (in the region) • Gearing up to strengthen our unions

  3. Logistics ‘The work required to move and position inventory throughout the supply chain which serves to link and synchronise the overall supply chain as a continuous process and is essential for supply chain connectivity.’ (Bowersox et al, 2007)

  4. Logistics • Logistics is a subset of and occurs within the broader framework of supply chains. • Logistics activities occur within and between all companies active within supply chains. • The rise of logistics is driving restructuring across the whole transport sector • The ‘new’ logistics industry plays a vital role in the global economy.

  5. Physical Flows, Nodes and Networks

  6. CONTAINER PORT AIR CARGO TERMINAL Global Gateways: Container and Air Cargo

  7. Information and Communication Flows • Enable faster and more consistent communication within organisations and between corporate actors in supply chains • Enhances effective communication between logistics information systems and their physical operating environments

  8. ICT and Logistics • Customers demanding real time information • Used to reduce inventory, labour requirements and risk • Improve timing/speed • Increase reliability • Increase transparency in supply chains

  9. ICT Systems • Supply Chain Information Systems (SCIS) are responsible for linking all logistics activities into an integrated process • These have four major components: • Enterprise Resource Planning systems • Communication systems • Execution systems • Planning systems

  10. Information and Communication Technologies • Types of ICT used • Bar coding and scanning • Global data synchronisation • The Internet • Satellite technology • Image processing • Extensible markup language

  11. The work of logistics • Order Processing • Inventory • Transport • Warehousing, Materials Handling and Packaging • Facility Network Design

  12. Order Processing • Order preparation • Order transmittal • Order entry • Order filling • Order status reporting • Key customer interface

  13. Inventory • Raw materials • Work in process • Finished goods • Supplies

  14. Warehousing, Materials Handling and Packaging • Many types of warehousing • Traditional role has been to hold or store inventory but • Today many value added activities occur in such environments, operations focus on customisation, velocity and movement • Packaging serves to protect products during the logistics process • Materials handling involves receiving, moving, storing, sorting and assembling.

  15. Facility Network Design • A facility network is the number, size and geographical relationship of facilities used to perform logistical operations. • Include manufacturing plants, warehouses, cross-docks, ports and retail outlets. • Facility network design determines the number and location of all types of facilities used to perform logistics work • Facility networks are in a constant state of flux

  16. Transport • These are the operations which geographically move and position inventory • Include road, rail, water, air and pipeline • Is the largest element of logistics costs • Reduces inventory, storage and materials handling • Transport’s role is becoming increasingly important in supply chains

  17. Air Cargo Airports Contract Logistics Finished Vehicle Logistics Freight Forwarding Ports Express and Parcels Intermodal NVOCC Rail Road Haulage and Trucking Service Parts Logistics Temperature controlled logistics Warehousing and property development Information and Management Services Shipping Logistics Industry: Markets

  18. Barriers Between Modes Disappearing • NOL/APL • Singapore Based • Steamship Line • Terminal Operator • #3 US Whouse Co., • Rail = Liner Trains • Deutsche Post World Net • Privatizing German Postal Service • DHL • Danzas • Airborne Express • Exel: #1 US Warehouse Co.

  19. Logistics in Central and Eastern Europe • Fundamental changes in the logistics market in recent years • Production – ‘near sourcing’ in CEE • Growing consumer markets • Large LSPs – new models to serve clients • Few indigenous international companies operating on a global scale • Pattern in most CEE countries = strong local logistics presence serving the needs of small business + large TNC providers providing services for the international ‘incomers’ • Possible restructuring with some CEE based companies grouping themselves together to provide services across the region

  20. CEE: Contract Logistics Market Size and Growth • 2007 grew to €991m, a growth rate of 24% • Highest growth rate in the Slovak Republic (39%) • Baltic States also experiencing strong growth, helped by proximity to Russian market • 2011 market forecast = €1956m (18.56%)

  21. CEE: Express and Parcels • Still major differences between CEE and WE markets but likely to change as shippers demand specialist levels of service and pricing • Growth is not homogeneous across the region, Baltic States and Slovenia show above average growth • Automotive is particularly important to the express sector in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary • All major global express providers are well positioned in Poland and Czech Republic

  22. CEE: Freight Forwarding • 2007 grew to €2112m, a growth rate of 21.3% • 2007 - Air forwarding grew to €637m, a growth rate of 17% • 2007 – Sea forwarding grew to €1475m, a growth rate of 23.3% • 2011 – freight forwarding market forecast is €3731m, a growth rate of 15.3%

  23. CEE: Road By Type 2006 (m t km) Source: Eurostat

  24. Logistics Actors in the Region • Include: • Manufacturers • Retailers • Local, regional and national Governments • The European Commission • AND Logistics Service Providers

  25. “Wal-Mart is hard to do business with. I had a cardiac episode while I was working for them.”- Former Exel manager of Wal-Mart DC POWER 3PL Ocean carriers Inland transport Manufacturers

  26. Deutsche Bahn CEVA DPWN DPD DSV Ewals Cargo Care FedEx Fiege Logistics FM Logistics GAC GEFCO GLS Geodis (SNCF) Kuehne and Nagel M&M AP Moller Maersk Group NYK Logistics Panalpina TNT UPS UTi Worldwide Wincanton Logistics Industry: Main Actors in the Region

  27. Logistics Industry: Main Actors present in all your home countries • Deutsche Bahn • DPWN • DSV • GAC • Kuehne and Nagel • M&M • Others (variable range of operations)

  28. M&M: Militzer & Münch International Holding AG • Owned by TransInvest Holding AG • Headquartered in Switzerland • Operations divided into 6 regional groups • A major partner in the System Alliance organisation, a FedEx partner • Products and Services include rail cargo, air cargo, sea cargo, groupage, customs service, warehousing and logistics

  29. M&M Organisation

  30. M&M: Strategies for Growth • Build its network in Eastern Europe • Focus on developing its IT-aided processes • Become more active in new and developing markets with a focus on Central Asia and China

  31. GAC • Head office in Dubai • Privately owned • Operates in over 40 countries, with 250 offices and over 7000 staff • Business areas include shipping, logistics, marine and solutions • Target markets include oil and gas, retail, automotive to dry bulk and cruise liners

  32. GAC: Strategies for Growth • Aims to provide an integrated solution to its clients’ logistical needs • Expansionist strategy, particularly in emerging markets • Tends to enter new markets via partnerships first, then set up subsidiary • Four hub agency centres: London, Dubai, Singapore and Houston

  33. Logistics revolution Road transport Consolidator / freight forwarder, 3PL Manufacturer Ocean shipping Air freight Home Small parcel delivery Port trucking Road transport Road transport Warehouse: deconsolidator, 3PL, wholesaler, DC Rail Warehouse: deconsolidator, 3PL, wholesaler, DC Retailer

  34. How to get started… Union Strength Geography/Market Companies