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Psychology of Learning EXP4404

Psychology of Learning EXP4404

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Psychology of Learning EXP4404

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  1. Psychology of LearningEXP4404 Chapter 7: Punishment Dr. Steve

  2. Topics Covered • Positive & Negative Punishment • Variables Affecting Punishment • Contingency • Contiguity • Intensity • Opposing Reinforcers • Theories of Punishment • Problems with Punishment • Alternatives

  3. Types of Punishment • Positive Punishment (Type I) • Negative Punishment (Type II or Penalty Training)

  4. Variables Affecting Punishment • Contingency

  5. Variables Affecting Punishment • Contiguity

  6. Variables Affecting Punishment • Punisher Intensity

  7. Variables Affecting Punishment • Progressive increase of intensity -

  8. Variables Affecting Punishment • Progressive increase of intensity - Group 1 Mild Shock 335 volts Trial 1 Trial 750 Rats run at same pace Group 2 No Shock 335 volts Trial 1 Trial 750 Rats running is inhibited

  9. Variables Affecting Punishment • Previous and Concurrent Reinforcement of Punished Behavior

  10. Variables Affecting Punishment • Punishment works best when it is:

  11. Variables Affecting Punishment • Alternative Sources of Reinforcement –

  12. Theories of Punishment • Disruption Theory (Skinner & others) – • Passive Avoidance type theory

  13. Theories of Punishment • Two Process Theory

  14. Theories of Punishment • One Process Theory (Thorndike & others) – • Law of Effect • Premack Principle applied to punishment

  15. Why Punish? • Lovaas study with autistic children 400 No Punishment Shock + “No” “No” 300 Freq of self-destructive acts 200 100 1 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Day

  16. Criticisms of Punishment • Skinner and others often opposed the use of punishment because:

  17. Problems with Punishment • Escape/Avoidance • Aggression • Apathy • Abuse • Imitation of Punisher

  18. Alternatives to Punishment • Response Prevention • Extinction • Differential Reinforcement • DR0 – differential reinforcement of zero responding • DRL – diff reinf of low rate • DRI – diff reinf of incompatible behavior

  19. Reinforcement (pos or neg) vs Punishment (Type I or II)? • Police pulling drivers over and giving prices for buckling up • Suspending a basketball player for committing a flagrant foul • A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass • A child snaps her fingers until her teacher calls on her • A hospital patient is allowed extra visiting time after eating a complete meal • Receiving a city utility discount for participating in a recycling program • Grounding a teenager until his or her homework is finished • Scolding a child for playing in the street • A prisoner loses TV privileges for one week for a rule violation • A parent nagging a child to clean up her room • A rat presses a lever to terminate a shock or a loud tone • A professor gives extra credit to students with perfect attendance • A dog is banished to his doghouse after soiling the living room carpet • A prisoner is “water boarded” until he confesses • A young child receives $5 for earning good grades in school • A mother smiles when her child utters “Mama” • A child is put into “time out” for misbehaving • Employee of the month gets a reserved parking space • At a party, a husband becomes sullen when his wife flirts with a colleague • A woman watching a football game offers her child candy to play quietly