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Frontier Warfare, 1622-1763
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  1. Frontier Warfare, 1622-1763 • North American military environment • The origins and nature of the Militia • Service obligation; providing weapons; training, command • Colonial conflicts, 1622-1688 • Tidewater (1622-30) Pequot (1637); King Philip (1675-76) • Tactics: Battle; crop destruction, allies and rangers, forts • Imperial conflicts, 1689-1763 • Colonies as logistic base, source of troops • Strategic conflicts • French and Indian War-7 Years War (1754-63) • Battle of Monongahela (Braddock’s Defeat), 1955 • Imperial military operations and adaptations

  2. War of Independence, 1775-83 • Strategy • British • Land-sea operations, hold cities, protect loyalists • Patriots • Wearing down (attrition); control countryside/populace • Regional Campaigns • Northern Theater, 1775-78 • Saratoga Campaign (1777); Philadelphia Campaign • Southern Theater, 1779-83 • Nathanael Greene, Cowpens • Contested History: Continentals and Militia

  3. US Defense Policy, 1789-1814 • Creating the republic’s armed forces • Constitution and military policy • Militia Act, 1792 and “Regular” Army, 1784 • Defending the Nation, 1784-1800 • Frontier • Civil-Military Relations • Federalists and ‘New Army’ • Jefferson’s military policy, 1800-8 • US Military Academy • US Navy and Barbary Wars • 2nd Anglo-American War (War of 1812)

  4. US Military Policy, 1814-1860 • International and Internal Threats • War Department reforms • John C. Calhoun and Bureau System • Expansible Army • Fortification Board and Harbor Defense, 1814-1860 • Joseph G. Totten • Pacifying the Frontier • Native Americans, Mexican-American War • Mexican-American War, 1846-48 • Strategy and Manpower • Operations

  5. US Naval Policy, 1794-1865 • Maritime problems in the Early Republic • Pirates, hostile nations, and protection of maritime trade • Act to Provide Naval Armament, 1794 • Separates Navy Department from War Department • Funding for construction of ‘super’ frigates • Early conflicts • Quasi-War with France; Barbary Wars • War of 1812 • US Navy, 1815-1860 • Station Squadrons and Missions • Impact of Technology • Navy in the Civil War USS Constitution

  6. Civil War • The myth of the Lost Cause • Union and Confederate Objectives • Manpower • CSA advantages and disadvantages • Struggle for the Border States • Shiloh campaign, 1862

  7. 1863: Year of Decision • Strategic Situation • Stalemate in Eastern Theater • Confederacy losing in West • Blockade and river war effecting CSA economy • Gettysburg Campaign, May-July 1863 • Robert E. Lee’s argument for invasion • Army of Northern Virginia moves into Pennsylvania • Commanders and troops • George G. Meade and Army of Potomac • Battle • Encounter battle, 1 July • Testing the flanks, 2 July • Repulse in the Center, 3 July • Grant’s Vicksburg Campaign, March-July 1863 • Running the batteries and battles • Siege and victory

  8. CIVIL WAR: HARD WAR, 1864-65 • Occupation and Pacification • Popular resistance, guerrillas, logistics • General Orders #100 (Francis Lieber) • William T. Sherman and views of War • Meridian Raid • Atlanta Campaign (May-September 1864) • Joseph Johnston and John Bell Hood • Destruction of Southern popular resistance • March to the Sea and South Carolina