What did you do this weekend? • Write down all of the things you did this weekend. • Put an asterisk beside each item that you can prove happened. - There is video or audio evidence - Someone else observed them happening * Just because you tweeted it or posted it on Facebook does not mean it happened.
• Which of your activities were most likely to leave evidence behind? • What, if any of that evidence might be preserved for the future? Why? • What might be left out of a historical record of your activities? Why? • What would a future historian be able to tell about your life and your society based on evidence of your daily activities that might be preserved for the future?
The Past All actions and thoughts by all individuals in all times and places Events observed by someone Events observed, remembered and recorded. (Unrecorded actions and thoughts have been lost to history.) Events observed and remembered (Events observed but not remembered have been lost to history.) . Events for which we have surviving records. (This is the raw material of history!) “THE ACCOUNT”: AVAILABLE, USABLE, BELIEVABLE RECORDS FOR A GIVEN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT
Question #1:What is history exactly? • The Past:All actions and thoughts by all individuals in all times and places. • So we know about all of these actions and thoughts from the beginning of time? • So how do we know what we know about the past? For example: • A comet flew through the night. • An apple fell from a tree. • You made a sandwich last night.
Question #2: How do we study history (historiography)? What do historians do? • Historiography--study of how history has been written. • Think about how much history there is! • “History is the act of selecting, analyzing and writing about the past.” -Conal Furay and Michael J. Salevouris, The Methods and Skills of History
Historical Event: “The Accident” What did you see when the LTD bus and sports car collided? Task: Get into 6 groups
Scene of the crime… • You are about to witness an accident. • You are standing on one of the corners of this scene. • An LTD bus is entering the intersection. • A red Mustang convertible is entering the intersection. • The LTD bus and the Mustang collide into each other. • You see this collision. You hear afterwards that a teenager was driving the convertible. • The police will be along shortly to take your eye witness statement about the accident. • Your group must come up with an account of what happened and elect a spokesperson to explain the event to the police.
Bus Route Sports Car Route View of the accident
U of O student waiting for your friend on the bus, does not have health care. Sports car driver, has excellent car insurance An elderly couple who’s fence keeps getting tagged. View of the Accident A person with a recent “close call” with an LTD bus Insurance Agent of driver Off duty LTD employee
What filters someone’s interpretation of perception of an event? Event
Relationships and alliances Past experiences What filters someone’s interpretation of perception of an event? Economic interests Event Power and control oppurtunities
A Multi- Ethnic American An Arab American A Latino American History is quite simply events retold by someone… An Asian American An African American European Americans
“Right - True - Real” • Looking to know what really happened? You’ll need a lot of eyes to get the full picture. • Want to understand someone’s point of view? Even your own? You’ll need to know what alliances and materials they have at stake. • Historians choose the history they want to tell based on their own biases, agendas, and filters.
Basic Historiography • Example: A person living at the time of Obama’s health care speech to the nation witnesses events. She writes about it. This document is a __________________. • Later a historian uses the source in another text. This document is called a _______________________. • When another historian argues that the secondary source misuses or correctly uses the primary source, this is historiography. • What are some basic questions we can ask when looking back at how history was written?
OPVL Handout • Tonight--read this like a love letter. • Mark it up / take notes. • Be ready to be quizzed over its contents.
Contact to ConquestDay 2: Global Context and World Views • Please have your HW out to be stamped as finished and on time. • Write down your HW: • Chapter 1 Reading and Questions, Assignment #2 pp. 20-26 (Green) • Be ready to move into groups.
Body Ritual Among the Nacirema-an anthropological study by Horace Miner (1956) • Read the text together, aloud. • Note differences you see between the Nacirema culture and ours (find 3-5). • Draw one picture of a Nacirema ritual as you listen. • Be ready to share with the class.
The Nacirema and “The Other” • Nacirema is American spelled backwards. • How do we describe/view other cultures? • Be aware of the “I’m from a more civilized culture mentality”. • How does this connect with your HW for class today?
Task: Read an excerpt from Columbus’s journal and answer the following questions with your group. 1. What attitudes does Columbus have about the people he encounters? Give 3 quotes from his journal as evidence. 2. Based on what you read in the journal, what does it appear Columbus cares about, what does he want? Give several quotes as evidence. 3. Based on Columbus’s observations, what if anything can you tell about the kind of people the “Indians” are--what they value, etc.? If you don’t think you can tell anything about the Indians from his journal, give your reasons for why not.
The Journal of C. Columbus “One old man got into the boat, and all the rest, men and women, cried in loud voices: ‘Come and see the men who have come from heaven; bring them food and drink.” - Sunday, October 14th, 1492 (Day 3) Q. What could be a limitation of this as a historical source?
FRIDAY, September 17th • Have your homework packet out on your table to be stamped, please. • Look over your Reading Assignment 1 materials and be ready for a quiz! • NO HOMEWORK!
Quiz: Get out a piece of paper and title it Reading Quiz 9/15. • What two parts of OPVL have to do with the originator of the source? • What two parts have to do with the historian and how they use the source? • What kind of source is more reliable than the other--a primary or secondary source? • What is a question you could be asking yourself with analyzing the purpose of a source? • What is one common response by students when answering the limitation portion of an OPVL that is obvious and therefore shouldn’t be mentioned in a limitation analysis. • Prior to the year 1500, in which region (Europe, Africa, Americas or all) would one have found societies with large cities, advanced systems of agriculture, and well-developed economic and political structures? • A main difference between most Native Americans and most Europeans in regard to how they viewed the land was that most Europeans believed in _______ ownership of the land while most Native Americans believed in _______ ownership of the land. • In contrast to the European family structure, the family structure in many Native American and African societies was matrilineal. Explain what that means. • What is one event Opechancanough (opening story) witnesses during his lifetime? • Where were the Incas located? A) Mexico B) North America C) South America
Task: In groups, discuss and answer questions #1-5 on the second page of the primary sources assigned as homework due today.
The Columbian ExchangeDay 3September 20-21 • New HW: Zinn / Loewen Readings and Questions
Homework: • Group 1: Pages 37-44; Questions 2 and 3 • Group 2: Pages 45-52; Questions 4 and 5 • Group 3: Pages 53-59; Question 6 • Group 4: Pages 60-68; Questions 8,9,10 • Group 5: Pages 68-73; Questions 11 and 12 Feel free to read them all!!!
4. How many U.S. place names can you think of that are in Spanish? • San Francisco, Las Vegas, El Paso, Sacramento, Colorado, Nevada, the Sierras, Santa Fe, etc… • Pre-1848 a vast part of the current US was Mexico.
Primary Sources / OPVL Practice • Task: In groups, discuss and answer questions #1-5 on the second page of the primary sources assigned as homework due in the last class.
FILM:Columbus and the Age of Discovery: Columbian Exchange • Examining the impact of Columbus’s voyages. • Globalization: an ongoing process in which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of exchange. • Globalization 1.0: (1492-1800) when the world shrank from a size large to medium. • Globalization 2.0: (1800 - 2000) multinational corporations shrank the world to a size small. • Globalization 3.0: (2000 - current) size tiny. --Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat
Day 4: The Price of Contact9/22 & 9/23 • HW due: Do not turn into the basket, will be stamped shortly. • “Lies My Teacher Told Me”, Reading & Questions • New HW: Read Zinn article and finish textbook comparison for Friday
Quiz: Write your name, class, date, title of assignment. • Write down 5 things you learned about Columbus, the voyages, context surrounding the voyages, etc., that you didn’t know before. • Who was Bartolome de Las Casas and why is he important to history? • What are the names of the native peoples of Hispanola (Haiti & the Dominican Republic)? There are two acceptable answers.
“Columbus Landing in the Bahamas,” John Vanderlyn, 1847 Who’s perspective is represented here? What message is the artist conveying about Columbus? Use explicit examples from the image to support your views.
Task: #1 • Get together with those who shared your reading (1’s with 1’s, 2’s with 2’s, etc..) • As a group, take 5 minutes to discuss the answers you came up with for your questions. Work out any confusion amongst yourselves first, then you can ask me. Use all of this time!! • Get together in larger groups, with members of each group represented. Teach each other! Answer questions 1-12. (20-25 minutes)
Task #2: Analyzing TextbooksHow does the text… Other questions for discussion: Are there any contradictory statements or descriptions? Are there details missing? Questions that remain? Are the details “selective”?
Friday, September 24 • Have your textbook comparison out on your • desk to be stamped • Write down your homework for Monday or Tuesday: • Read “African Americans Mourn the • Quincentenary • and Celebrate Resistance” • Answer the questions in your packet in • preparation for a graded discussion on • Monday or Tuesday.
Primary Source/ OPVL Practice Task: In groups, discuss and answer questions#1-5 on the second page of the primary sources assigned as homework due in the last week.
Next Week’s Graded Discussion • Prepare by completing the questions • in your packet. - You may have notecards with you - Structure will most likely be that of a socratic circle