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Considering Individual Differences. One way to account for individual differences is to modify the events of instruction. Compare and contrast the instructional events of a model of direct instruction (be sure to identify the source of the model) and the 4MAT system developed by Bernice McCarthy.

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Considering Individual Differences

One way to account for individual differences is to modify the events of instruction. Compare and contrast the instructional events of a model of direct instruction (be sure to identify the source of the model) and the 4MAT system developed by Bernice McCarthy.

Developed by W. Huitt, 1999


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Considering Individual Differences

In general, there are three different approaches for dealing with individual differences among students:

  • Develop events of instruction that take into account individual differences

  • Provide some sort of groupingin order to reduce or accommodate the variability with respect to student background, achievement, ability or some other characteristic.


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Considering Individual Differences

In general, there are three different approaches for dealing with individual differences among students:

  • Modify the conditions within which instruction is taking place.


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The 4MAT System

The 4MAT system is a strategy for dealing with individual differences is to develop or modify the events of instruction so that they specifically address individual differences.

It is a direct instruction approach to teaching that utilizes research on brain lateralization dominance and learning style to identify specific instructional events that will be attractive to a specific type of student.


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These styles are based on the work of Gregorc & Butler (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Gregorc, A., & Butler, K. (1984, April). Learning is a matter of style. VocEd, 27-29.

The 4MAT System

According to Bernice McCarthy, developer of the 4MAT system, there are 4 major learning styles, each of which asks different questions and displays different strengths during the learning process.


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Concrete-Random

WHY?

SP (Sensing/Perceiving)

Sanquine


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Abstract-Sequential

WHAT?

NJ (Intuitive/Judging)

Choleric


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Concrete-Sequential

HOW?

SJ (Sensing/Judging)

Melancholy


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Abstract-Random

IF?

NP (Intuitive/Perceiving)

Phlegmatic


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

Each learning style is associated with both left- and right-brain learners.

Right

Left

Intuitive, emotional, holistic, parallel, and tactile-kinesthetic

Logical, rational, sequential, serial, verbal


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

The 4MAT system is designed to provide every student with a preferred task during every lesson. There are the 8 instructional events proposed by this system.


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

STEP

LEFT MODE

RIGHT MODE

WHY?

Create an experience

1

Reflect/Analyze about experience

2


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

STEP

LEFT MODE

RIGHT MODE

WHAT?

Integrate into concepts

3

Develop concepts and skills

4


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

STEP

LEFT MODE

RIGHT MODE

HOW?

Practice defined givens

5

Add something of oneself

6


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

STEP

LEFT MODE

RIGHT MODE

IF?

Analyze application for relevance

7

Add something of oneself

8


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The 4MAT System (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.

The 4MAT system seems to have considerable face validity, although there is not a widespread research base to support it.

However, following the 4MAT system forces the teacher to provide her students with opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking.