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Individual Differences

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  1. Individual Differences

  2. Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart • … seeks to identify the genetic and environmental influences on the development of psychological traits. • What causes such similarities?

  3. Interactions between Personality and Environment There is a built-in correlation between the child’s inherited characteristics (genotype) and the environment in which he or she is raised. Three forms of interactions: • Reactive • Evocative • Proactive

  4. The Idea of the Four Temperaments • Hippocrates divided people into four basic temperaments, around the year 450 BC. • Hippocrates saw the root of one's temperament as being derived from the humours dominant in the body: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic.

  5. Temperament … • … is an individual’s characteristics, emotional nature, including energy level, prevailing mood and sensitivity to stimulation. … a genotype, an inborn peculiarity of nervous system.

  6. Characteristics of Temperaments • Sensitivity • Reactivity • Resistance • Rigidity • Extraversion, Introversion • Attention arousal

  7. Characteristics of Arousal and Inhibition • Strength • Balance • Mobility

  8. Psychological Characteristics of Temperaments

  9. Test Keys Scale «Extravertion»: Yes – 1, 3, 8, 10, 13, 17, 22, 25, 27, 39, 44, 46, 49, 53, 56 No – 5, 15, 20, 29, 32, 34, 37, 41, 51

  10. Test Keys Scale «Neurotism»: Yes – 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 31, 33, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 47, 50, 52, 55, 57

  11. Test Keys Scale «Validity»: Yes - 6, 24, 36 No – 12, 18, 30, 42, 48

  12. Sanguine • Not given to worry • Self-composed • Liberal • Adjusts easily • Sociable • Talkative • Tends to prefer informality • Generous • Lacking in perseverance • Happy • Not averse to change • Peaceable • Tends to follow rather than lead • Cordial • Prone to carelessness, hedonism, flightiness, and lust • Lacking in initiative • Impulsive • Aware of surroundings • Impetuous

  13. Choleric • Impulsive • Independent • Irritated • Active • Nervous • Healthy • Aggressive • Strong • Persuasive • Extravert • Angry • Persistent • Initiative • Noisy • Touchy • Efficient • Dynamic • Impetuous • Rarely shows embarrassment • Prone to hypocrisy, deceit, pride, and anger • Dominative • Self-composed • Stubborn

  14. Phlegmatic • Attentive • Easy-going • Balanced • Passive • Peaceful • Thoughtful • Calm • Deliberative • Faithful • Reserved • Quiet • Constant in mood • Relatively unaffected by environment • Persistent • Stubborn • Shy • Wise • Dull

  15. Melancholic • Easily embarrassed • Sensitive • Sad • Serious • Nervous • Intuitive • Quiet • Self-conscious • Easily hurt • Boring • Introspective • Moody • Empathetic • Vulnerable • Likes to be alone • Slow • Sentimental • Intelligent • Good memory • Observer • Often artistic • Often fussy and perfectionist • Deep • Prone to depression, avarice, and gluttony

  16. Personal Traits formed by Temperament • Communicative role • Self-esteem • Confidence • Friendship and Love • Movements,Gait • Appetite • Sleep

  17. Communicative role . Sanguine Choleric Melancholic Phlegmatic like pleasure, lively tyrannical, stubborn defenceless, vulnerable calm observer

  18. Self-esteem . Sanguine Melancholic Phlegmatic Choleric Attracts attention, often praises frightened, unsociable Wants to be a leader, good competitor shy, avoids attracting attention

  19. Confidence Choleric Phlegmatic . Sanguine Melancholic Confident, doesn’t tell about personal failures anxious, misjudges himself Believes in fortune often worries about himself

  20. Friendship and Love Sanguine Melancholic . Choleric Phlegmatic Extroverted, surrounded by many people Reliable, dependable, and devoted Doesn’t reveal his feelings, calm and even cool to a partner Often irritate, prefer to be a leader

  21. Movements,Gait fast, fidget . Rush, tense Sanguine Choleric Phlegmatic Melancholic glide, relaxed slow, indecisive

  22. Appetite Sanguine Choleric . Gourmand Eats fast Eats slowly, enjoy meal Spoiled appetite Phlegmatic Melancholic

  23. Character … • … is the expression of personality. It implies a certain unity of qualities with a recognizable degree of constancy or fixity in mode of action.

  24. Correlation between Body Build and CharacterTraits German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer divided people into four constitutional groups: • Pyknic type • Athletic type • Asthenic type • Displastic type

  25. 12 Types of accentuations described by Leonhard 1) demonstrative accentuation;2) pedantic accentuation;3) sticking (paranoid) accentuation;4) excitable (emotionally unstable) accentuation;5) hyperthymic accentuation;6) disthymic (subdepressive) accentuation;7) affect-labile (cyclothymic) accentuation;8) affect-exalted accentuation;9) anxious accentuation;10) emotive accentuation;11) extraverted accentuation;12) introverted accentuation.

  26. Demonstrative Personality Type

  27. Excitable Personality Type

  28. Introversive Personality Type

  29. Dysthymic Personality Type

  30. Emotive Personality Type

  31. Exalted Personality Type

  32. Capacities … • …is the learned ability or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both.

  33. Capacities are divided into … • Specific (professional) capacities: time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation, etc. • General capacities: reading, writing, thinking, etc.