Download
gene expression inheritance patterns and dna technology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Gene Expression, Inheritance Patterns, and DNA Technology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Gene Expression, Inheritance Patterns, and DNA Technology

Gene Expression, Inheritance Patterns, and DNA Technology

161 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Gene Expression, Inheritance Patterns, and DNA Technology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Gene Expression, Inheritance Patterns, and DNA Technology This Powerpoint contains information for chapters 11, 12, and 13.

  2. Gene Expression Role • Activation of gene = ____________________ • When transcription occurs • Mechanisms ensure that each protein is produced only when needed • 2 steps = ________________________________________

  3. Gene Expression in Prokaryotes • Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod • Discovered how genes control metabolism of sugar lactose E. Coli • See Concept Map

  4. Gene Expression in Eukaryotes • Vastly different from prokaryotes • Larger ______________ • DNA located in several individual chromosomes instead of single circular one • Most are __________________________________ • Expression is far more complex • No _______________ found in eukaryotes

  5. Three regulatory elements: • Structural genes: ____________________ • Promoter: __________________________ • Operator: __________________________ • All three of the above terms form the _______________________________ • What is the lac operon?

  6. Let’s talk about E. coli • Lactose…found in cows milk…disaccharide (glucose + galactose) • Let’s say you drink a glass of milk: • Lactose entering your body _______________________________________________ • Control the metabolism of lactose • Adjacent on chromosome • Production is controlled by 3 regulatory elements

  7. Repressor attaches to operator

  8. If lactose is absent… • Repressor protein attaches to ____________ • Inhibits a specific gene from being expressed • Prohibits ______________from binding to structural genes = no _______________

  9. Jobs on structural genes • Introns – _________________________________ • Exons – __________________________________ • Unsure of benefits of intron-exon pattern • May provide options for producing different _________ • Could facilitate the exchange of exons among homologous chromosomes during crossing over in meiosis = _________________________ • Pattern could serve as an additional source of the genetic diversity that is essential for evolution

  10. Control after transcription • Gene expression can be controlled by modifying _____ after _________________________ • __________ – lg. molecule; from transcription of introns and exons • Enzyme comes in and splits the pre-mRNA at each end of an intron and then splices the exons together, forming ________________ • mRNA leaves nucleus and enters the cytoplasm • mRNA begins the manufacturing of proteins on the ribosomes • BUT WE ALREADY KNOW THIS!!!!

  11. Nature of Cancer • Tumor – uncontrolled, abnormal cell division • Benign – ________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Malignant – _____________________________________ • Metastasis – ____________________________________

  12. Kinds of cancer • Carcinomas – ______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Sarcomas – ____________________________________ • Lymphomas – solid tumors that grow _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  13. Cancer and the cell cycle • Normal cell division – divide when needed and when conditions are right; governed by ______________________________________________________________________________________ • Adequate nutrition • Attachment to other cells, membrane, or fibers between cells • Cancer cell division – continue to divide in dense environments • _____________________________________________ • Continues to divide after _______________________________________________

  14. Causes of cancer • Mutations that alter the expression of genes coding for growth factor proteins • Can be ________________________ • Mostly caused by ________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Depends on factors • Maybe genetic predisposition (mutations in gametes can be passed to offspring) • Exposure time to _______________ • Amount of ____________________ • More than one ________________ is usually needed to produce cancer

  15. Oncogenes • Begin as _______________– normal genes; control cell growth and differentiation • Normally code for ______________ • Regulate ________________________________________ • Mutation in proto-oncogene • Produce more ________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Increases rate of cell cycle = ___________________

  16. Tumor-suppressor genes • Code for ________________________________ • Mutations = proteins for which they code are either expressed _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  17. Viruses and Cancer • Many viral genes are ________________ • Viruses can stimulate _________________by causing ______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Viruses may activate the cell’s own _________________ • Found to cause various types of ___________________

  18. Review • Know all vocabulary (would you expect anything less?) you know, morphogenesis, homeoboxes, introns, exons, etc. • Know the pictures depicting gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and what is happening (be able to identify what is happening and where; steps) • make sure you understand the lac operon! • steps leading to formation of protein in eukaryotic cells • Know difference between oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene • Know how Drosophila is used as an example with regards to mutations. • Know how genes can be expressed – the process • Know types of cancer and what happens for a cell to become cancerous

  19. Sex Determination • Thomas Hunt Morgan • Studied __________________ • 4 Pairs of ______________________________ • Noticed one pair was different between males and females • X – appeared same in male and females • Y – shorter, hook shaped • Gametes from meiosis II have either ____________________(depending on sex of parent)

  20. Sex Determination (cont.) • Morgan believed ____________________ it to carry more genes • X = X-linked genes • Y = Y-linked genes • Genes on sex chromosomes = ___________________ • Morgan’s fruit fly experiments confirmed the existence of X-linked traits

  21. Morgan’s findings on eye color • White-eyed male x red-eyed female = (followed Mendel’s predictions) • F1 generation all had __________________ • Crossed F1 generation = F2 generation exhibited _______________________________________________ • Hypothesized that the gene for ______________________________________________________________________________________________

  22. Linkage groups • Linked genes tend to be ___________________ • Typically a _______ ratio • If on a different chromosome, they are _________________ • Key: Grey (G) is _______________ to black (g); Long (L) is ____________________ to short (l) • Morgan crossed: GGLL x ggll • F1 = GgLl; crossed two F1 generations • F2 = Morgan thought if alleles were on different chromosomes, should _______________________ • Phenotypic ratio should be ____________ • If on same chromosome, __ gray, long-winged: __ black, short-winged • Result closely approximated the ___________ • Hypothesized that genes are linked

  23. What about … • Gray, short-winged and black, long-winged appearing? • If on same chromosome, must be some kind of _______________________________ • Possibly couldn’t be ________________ = Occur in one individual out of tens of thousands • Rearrangement occurred during _________________ • Rearrangement of alleles = _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  24. Chromosome Mapping • Alfred H Sturtevant • Morgan’s student • Used ____________________________________________________________________________________of Drosophila • Know what a chromosome map is, you won’t have to calculate map units, etc.

  25. Mutations • Chg in DNA of organism • Entire ________________ or single ___________________ • Germ Cell = ______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Somatic = ______________________________________ • Lethal = death, often before birth • Beneficial? = better chance of reproducing and have evolutionary advantage • Variation upon which natural selection acts

  26. Chromosome Mutations • Deletion= _____________________________________ • Inversion= ____________________________________ • Translocation= ________________________________ • Nondisjunction= _______________________________ • Ex. ____________________________________________

  27. Gene Mutations • Point = substitution, addition, or removal of • Substitutions = __________________________________ • Nucleotide Insertions – ________________________________ • Nucleotide Deletions - ________________________________ • Frame-shift = __________________________________ • What happens?

  28. 12.2 (Page 230-231 only) • Familiarize yourself with Table 12-3 on page 230 • Disorders due to _________________________ • Can cause gametes to lack a ________________________________________________ • Zygotes (______________) can have either 45 or 47 (often __________) • 45 = ____________________ (one copy of chromosome) • 47 = ____________________ (three copies)

  29. Trisomy • Trisomy 21 = extra copy of _______________________= Down Syndrome List 5 characteristics:

  30. Down Syndrome

  31. Nondisjunction and sex chromosomes • Males with extra copy of _____ = __________________________________________________ • Some feminine characteristics • Some are mentally retarded • Some are infertile • Individuals that inherit ______________do not survive = ___________contains information essential for development • Individuals that have __________________= Turner’s syndrome • Female appearance • Do not mature sexually • infertile

  32. Klinefelter’s Syndrome

  33. Turner’s Syndrome

  34. DNA Technology • Used to ______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Trace the path of the restriction enzyme using 5 post-its…be able to explain what is happening. Use your text, pages 239-240 to better gain an understanding for your explanation.

  35. How does it all happen? • DNA is a long chain of _______________________ • _________________________________ cut DNA into more manageable segments • ___________________ are created • Readily bind to _____________________________________ • Can be used to isolate a _________________________ • A __________________can transfer the gene to an organism

  36. Transplanting Genes • What would be the need to transplant genes? Talk with your table and discuss.