Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology. What is the code and how is it harnessed?. Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Learning Objectives. Describe what DNA is and what it does.
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What is the code and how is it harnessed?
Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Where is DNA found and why is it important?
Knowledge about DNA is increasing justice in the world.
–Nature, April 2008
Whether a man has one type of gene versus another could help decide whether he’s good “husband material,” a new study suggests.
–Washington Post, September 2008
(1) DNA contains the instructions on how to create a body and control its growth and development.
(2) The instructions encoded in the DNA molecule are passed down from parent to offspring. (Where have we recently seen this concept?)
Nucleic acids and nucleotides
A, T, C, and G
Make your own DNA model.
Answer the AIM
How is DNA structured?
Why is DNA considered the universal code for all life on earth?
Choices 1 and 3 are correct.
The process by which this information is used to build an organism occurs in two main steps:
What determines the function of an enzyme?
5’-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3’
(1) A mutated gene codes for a non-functioning protein, usually an enzyme.
(2) The non-functioning enzyme can’t catalyze the reaction as it normally would, bringing it to a halt.
(3) The molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates, like a blocked assembly line.
(4) The accumulating chemical causes sickness and/or death.
The change can cause a stop codon to occur early in translation and the full length protein is not translated.
A substitution can result in one incorrect amino acid being present in the protein which can affect the shape of the protein and therefore its function.
An insertion or deletion can occur early in the gene and result in an incorrect translation of the protein.
All of the above.
5.10 What is biotechnology?
(1) producing medicines to treat diseases
(2) curing diseases
(3) preventing diseases from occurring in the first place.
Cut human DNA into small pieces with a restriction enzyme.
Amplify the DNA pieces with PCR.
Insert the gene into a plasmid and insert into bacteria.
Probe a gene library.
Recombinant DNA technology
Human growth hormone (HGH)
Gene therapy and the correction of malfunctioning genes
(1) Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed.
(2) Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect.
(3) Problems with the transfer organism getting into unintended cells.
Intervening to prevent diseases using biotechnology focuses on answering questions at three different points in time:
Nutrient-rich “golden rice”
And he gave it for his opinion, ‘that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together.’
—Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, 1726
What foods are responsible for this?
All of the above.
All of the above.
From organs to individuals