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Chapter 7:. Creating a New Country. Government : the way people organize themselves and make decisions Canada is a democracy : the people hold the power and elect their leaders. Governor General (represents the King/Queen of England) | Cabinet (led by Prime Minister) House of Commons

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chapter 7

Chapter 7:

Creating a New Country

slide2

Government: the way people organize themselves and make decisions

  • Canada is a democracy: the people hold the power and elect their leaders
slide3

Governor General

(represents the King/Queen of England)

|

Cabinet

(led by Prime Minister)

House of Commons

(elected by the people)

|

People

(citizens who elect members into the gov’t)

slide4

After the colonies achieved responsible gov’t, they started to think about how to manage themselves

  • They wanted to meet the needs of everyone who lived in British North America
  • They called the joining “Confederation”
conditions for confederation
Conditions for Confederation
  • There were 7 colonies in BNA:
  • Canada West
  • Canada East
  • Nova Scotia
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Prince Edward Island
  • British Columbia
slide6

There was 3 main reasons why these colonies thought about joining together:

Political deadlock

Trade relations

Defence of BNA

1 political deadlock
1. Political Deadlock
  • In Canada East and West, the French and English members of the gov’t could not get along
  • The gov’t was made of many groups who would not agree with each other
  • There was political deadlock
slide8

One reason they disagreed: some groups wanted representation by population – the more people living in an area, the more members they get in the gov’t

  • this meant that some areas of Canada would have more power in the gov’t than others
2 trade
2. Trade
  • For a long time, Britain made a lot of money by trading with BNA and getting taxes
  • BNA was only allowed to trade with Britain
  • Britain realized that they needed to start trading goods with other countries – the colonies would lose a lot of money
  • Now, Britain didn’t need the colonies to make money. The colonies were actually draining a lot of money from Britain
slide10

The colonies began trading with the U.S.

  • They had “free trade” or “reciprocity” – neither country charged taxes on trade goods
  • The U.S. didn’t like the deal, and started charging taxes
  • BNA realized that if the colonies united, they could trade freely with each other
3 defence
3. Defence
  • Civil War broke out in the U.S. – the North vs. The South
  • Canada was worried that whoever won the war may want to take over Canada next
  • The U.S. believed in “Manifest Destiny”: they thought it was their God-given right to rule all of North America
  • The colonies knew they would be stronger if they united
the maritimes
The Maritimes
  • This was the Maritimes’ “Golden Age”
  • Shipbuilding made them tons of money
  • P.155: chart for the Maritime colonies
  • They wondered if Confederation would be a good thing for them or not:
  • if they joined the Canadas, a lot of the money they made would be sent away
  • On the other hand, they could get resources like coal and steel from the other provinces
  • They liked the idea of the railway – it would give quick access to the rest of Canada for them
breaking the deadlock
Breaking the deadlock
  • A man named George Brown had an idea: give each province it’s own gov’t to make it’s own decisions, but also have a federal gov’t to help each one
  • Leaders from all of the colonies decided to meet – in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island!!
  • This is why PEI is considered the “birthplace of Confederation”
slide17

A month later, the men met in Quebec

  • Everyone could not get what they wanted – the had to compromise
what the colonies decided
What the colonies decided:
  • The Canadas
  • Both the French and English had to make sure they had their own control
  • One major factor: education
  • New Brunswick
  • They were promised that a railway would be built, which convinced them to join
slide19

Nova Scotia

  • Also convinced when they were promised a railway
  • PEI
  • Worried that, because it was small, it wouldn’t get the same rights as the other provinces
  • Felt isolated – wanted to have a way to travel on/off the island. They were promised a ferry
  • Did not join confed. Until 1873 (9 years after the first meeting)
slide20

Newfoundland

  • Felt too far away from the other provinces to bother joining with them
  • Didn’t join until 1949!!!
the fathers
The “Fathers”
  • The 2 men who worked the hardest to create Confederation:

John A. MacDonald and George-Etienne Cartier

  • P.161
dawn of a dominion
Dawn of a Dominion
  • July 1, 1867: the “Dominion of Canada” is created. Canada became a country

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1jG58nghRo&feature=PlayList&p=9F861B57A7C8E9B5&index=37

the new gov t
The New Gov’t
  • The gov’t passed the “BNA Act”
  • Canada was still part of the British Empire
  • The Gov’t was divided between a
  • House of Commons – elected members
  • Senate – people appointed from each province
  • Each province received a number of gov’t members based on how big it’s population was (rep. by pop.)
  • Bigger provinces had more power
slide24

Power was divided between the provinces and the Federal Gov’t

  • P.163 – the division of power
democracy
Democracy?
  • With democracy, the “people” are allowed to decide who governs them
  • In Canada, in order to vote:
  • 21 years old or older
  • Had to own land
  • Married women were not allowed
  • Most minorities could not, because not many of them owned land