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Classification & Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & Chapter 34
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  1. Classification & Introduction to AnimalsChapter 18 & Chapter 34

  2. The science of naming and grouping organisms based on their similarities and evolutionary history is called ________________ taxonomy According to Aristotle, all living things could be divided into these 2 groups: Plants and animals

  3. Which scientist developed the system of naming organisms with a genus and species name? Carolus Linnaeus His 2 name naming system is called __________ ____________ Binomial nomenclature

  4. deuterostome If you remove cells from an early __________________ embryo theremaining cells can still make the whole organism.Deuterostome Protostome Silly phrase that will help you toremember the 7 hierarchy levels in Linnaeus’s classification system. Kids prefer cheese over fried green spinach. Kings play chess on fat green stools. Kids playing “chicken” on freeways get squished. You just need one to help you remember the sequence!

  5. rubrum The scientific name for red maple is Acer rubrum. The part of its name that is the SPECIES IDENTIFIER is ________ Name the 3 germ layers that formin early embryos. endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

  6. dorsal The top surface or back of an animal is the _____________ side.Dorsal ventral anterior posterior

  7. coelom Another name for the space inside an animal’s body that contains the body organs is the ___________________ Which of the 6 Kingdoms will ZOOLOGY class be focusing on this year? ANIMALIA

  8. Phylogenetic tree A _____________ is a diagramused by the 6 kingdom system that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms. The correct way to write the scientific name for lion is ________ Panthera leo panthera leoPanthera Leo Panthera leo Panthera leo or Panthera leo 1st name capitalized, 2nd name lower case, both italicized or underlined

  9. This diagram that uses “shared derived characters” to group organisms based on evolutionary characteristics is called a ___________ cladogram

  10. blastopore In some organisms the _______________ in the embryo becomes the ANTERIOR END of the digestive system (mouth) in others it becomes the POSTERIOR END of the digestive system (anus).

  11. http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif radial NAME THE TYPE OF CLEAVAGE What do we call organisms with this type of cleavage? Protostomes Deuterostomes DEUTEROSTOMES

  12. Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Name the 6 Kingdoms used to classify organisms today The correct scientific name for humans is _______ ________ Homo sapiens(OR Homo sapiens)

  13. Echinoderms (like starfish) are thought to be more closely related to vertebrates than to other invertebrates (like mollusks) because _________________________ * they have a spinal cord like vertebrates * their blastopore becomes their anus like vertebrates * they both belong to the Protist Kingdom * Echinoderms and vertebrates all have pseudocoeloms The blastopore becomes the anus in BOTH vertebrates and echinoderms. It becomes the mouth in all other invertebrates.

  14. Morphology Fossil record Embryology patterns Chromosomes (karyotype) Macromolecule sequences (DNA or amino acids in proteins) Name three kinds of evidence modern taxonomists might look at when classifying an organism

  15. DEUTEROSTOMES PROTOSTOMES PROTOSTOME? DEUTEROSTOME? Indeterminate radial cleavage ______________________ Determinate spiral cleavage _______________________ Blastopore becomes mouth _____________________ Blastopore becomes anus ______________________ Can’t make identical twins _______________________ Can make identical twins _______________________ Includes all vertebrates plus echinoderms __________________________ Includes all invertebrates except echinoderms ________________________ PROTOSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES PROTOSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES PROTOSTOMES

  16. division In Linnaeus’s hierarchy PHYLUM is used for animals and __________ is used when classifying plants. The evolutionary history of anorganism is called ____________ phylogeny

  17. List the 7 levels of Linnaeus’s classification hierarchy starting with the most general Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  18. Animal can move body muscles without interfering with its digestion What is the advantage of having a true eucoelom? Removing cells from an ____________ embryo will result in an organism with parts missing and the organism will die.deterostome protostome protostome

  19. These groups are: A. Levels in Linnaeus’s hierarchy B. Modern Kingdoms used to classify organisms C. Domains in the 3 Domain system D. Cladistic groups Modern KINGDOMS used to classify organisms

  20. mouth In most invertebrates like (mollusks, worms, & arthropods) the blastopore becomes the ________ anus mouth An ______________ is an animalwithout a backbone. invertebrate

  21. Which is the ONLY group of INVERTEBRATES in which the blastopore becomes the anus? Echinoderms (EX: starfish) The scientific name for lion is Panthera leo. The part of its name that tells its GENUS is ______________ Panthera

  22. This Kingdom contains bacteria that live in hostile places like volcano vents and acidic water which scientists think are very “ancient”. Eubacteria Archaebacteria Fungi Protists archaebacteria Name one of the animal groups youlearned about that are vertebrates. Mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians,

  23. Organisms are classified using the 3-DOMAIN System based on______________ Kind of ribosomes they have Body parts that come from the same embryological structures (like abat wing and a human arm are called _____________ structures.Analogous homologous homologous

  24. http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html Some organisms have a body cavity with mesoderm around the outside body wall BUTNOT around the gut.They are called__________________acoelomates pseudocoelomates coelomates pseudocoelomates

  25. Label the 2 diagrams that show evolutionary relationships ____________________ ____________________ http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm Phylogenetic tree cladogram

  26. Protista SINGLE CELLED EUKARYOTES like Euglena and Amoeba belong to the kingdom ________________. Planta Animalia Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Name the 3 kinds of symmetry you learnedabout Asymmetry, radial symmetry, & bilateral symmetry

  27. anterior In this picture the cougar’s_____________ end is facing you.dorsal ventral anterior posterior Mushrooms, mold, and yeast belongto the Kingdom ________________. FUNGI

  28. ventral The bottom (underneath) side of an animal is called the ______________ side.Dorsal ventral anterior posterior

  29. http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/symmetry2.htm Slicing this mouse down the middle results in halvesthat are mirror images. This kind ofsymmetry is called _____________ bilateral The early Greek philosopher and scientist who first grouped organisms into categories was ______________ Aristotle

  30. http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html Type of body in whichthe space around the internal organs is lined on 2 sides with mesoderm. Eucoelom OR “true coelom” Mesoderm on outside body wall AND around gut

  31. protostome An organism in which the blastoporebecomes the mouth Structures with a SIMILAR function that have a DIFFERENT embryological origin (like a bird wing and a butterfly wing) are called ___________ structures.analogous homologous analogous

  32. In ALL VERTEBRATES and one invertebrate group (ECHINODERMS) the blastopore becomes the __________________ anus Humans have _________ symmetry.No bilateral radial bilateral

  33. A diagram that is used to show the evolutionary relationships thought to exist between organisms is based on a variety of evidence is called a _______________________ phylogenetic tree http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm

  34. eucoelomateOR coelomate An organism that has a true COELOM is called a ______________. The correct way to pronouncethe word “COELOM” is Koe-lum See-lum Sell-um SEE-lum

  35. Type of symmetry seenin jellyfish in which dividingthe animal in several directions can produce equalhalves.Asymmetry radial bilateral radial Images from: http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/symmetry2.htm

  36. Eukarya Using the 3 Domain system, animals would be classified in the Domain ___________________ Body structures that may have a similar FUNCTION and have the same embryological origins (like a bird wing and a human arm) are called ___________ structures. homologous analogous homologous

  37. http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html Animals (like some worms) with a type of body in which there is NO body cavity. acoelomates This depression thatforms in the side of a blastula when cellsmove inward is calleda ______________. blastopore Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

  38. Rigid covering on the outside of an animals body that acts as a skeleton exoskeleton Nitrogen waste from cells can exist in several chemical forms. Name one. AMMONIA, UREA, URIC ACID

  39. Which classification system uses this diagram to show evolutionary relationships? 6 Kingdom system http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm

  40. Name another way modern scientists use to classify organisms besides the 6-Kingdom system. Cladistics 3-Domain system The blastopore area in an animalembryo becomes part of THIS body system.Reproductive respiratory digestive nervous digestive

  41. No matter which way you slice this animal, you never get 2 equal halves. It has __________ asymmetry. Asymmetry bilateral symmetry radial symmetry True OR FalseOrganisms that share homologousstructures probably have a common ancestor. TRUE

  42. Name one way DEUTEROSTOMES are different from PROTOSTOMES PROTOSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES 1. Blastopore becomes mouth 1. Blastopore becomes anus 2. Determinate 2. Indeterminate embryonic cells embryonic cells 3. Spiral cleavage 3. Radial cleavage 4. Invertebrates except 4. Vertebrates & echinoderms echinoderms

  43. This type of diagram using “Shared derived characters” to show evolutionary relationships is called a _______________________ cladogram http://facstaff.uww.edu/wentzl/cladogram_1.gif

  44. Integumentary Body coverings like feathers, fur, and skin are included in this body system. The concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of an organism is called _______________________ cephalization

  45. Provides space for internal organs Can act as a hydrostatic skeleton Can provide space for nutrients to circulate Name one of the functions of a coelom Body system that removes nitrogen waste produced by the body cells Excretory

  46. Which classification system uses this diagram to show evolutionary relationships? CLADISTITCS uses this one… it is called a cladogram

  47. closed In a(n) ____________ circulatory system blood circulates thoroughout the body inside blood vessels A free swimming immature form of an organism is called a ____________ LARVA

  48. direct The young of animals that show ___________ development start out looking like the adults only smaller. Type of circulatory system in which blood in not enclosed in vessels but circulates freely in the body space ___________ open

  49. indirect The young of animals that show ___________ development start out as an immature larva and undergo metamorphosis to become adults . http://www.enchantedlearning.com

  50. Type of reproduction in which 1 parent copies itself without exchanging genetic material with a partner. asexual Skeleton that is located inside the body. endoskeleton