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Fungi. Chapter 31. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista. Monera. Kingdom Fungi. About 100,000 species. Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships (N 2 fixers) Problems: some strains are deadly athletes foot destroy library books

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slide1

Fungi

Chapter 31

slide3

Kingdom Fungi

About 100,000 species

  • Uses:
    • medicine
    • food
  • Ecological value:
    • major decomposers
    • symbiotic relationships (N2 fixers)
  • Problems:
    • some strains are deadly
    • athletes foot
    • destroy library books
    • destroy crops
some fungi are pathogens
Some fungi are pathogens
  • About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants.
    • American elms:

Dutch Elm Disease

  • American chestnut:
  • chestnut blight

Was once one of America's most dominant trees

some fungi are pathogens5
Some fungi are pathogens
  • Other fungi, such as rusts and ergots, infect grain crops, causing tremendous economic losses each year.
some fungi are pathogens6
Some fungi are pathogens
  • Curse of the Mummy
slide8

Kingdom Fungi

Eukaryotic, absorptive

Mostly multicellular (except few, e.g. yeast)

Heterotrophic (decomposers & parasitic)

Mycelium (body of hyphae)

slide9

Kingdom Fungi

  • Firm cell walls (generally of “chitin”)
  • “Spores” as reproductive bodies
  • Unique chromosomes and nuclei
  • Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms
slide11
hyphae - the vegetative bodies of most fungi, constructed of tiny filaments
  • mycelium -an interwoven mat of hyphae
slide12

Human hair

Fungal hypha

slide13

Septate hypha:

  • multicellular
  • walls divided by septa
  • Ceonocytic hypha:
  • continuous cytoplasm mass
  • multinucleate
  • no septa
slide14
Haustoria:
  • Modified hyphae found in parasitic fungi
  • Function: absorb nutrients from host
  • Some fungi even have hyphae adapted for preying on animals.
slide15

Kingdom Fungi

Division Chytridiomycota

Division Ascomycota

Division Basidiomycota

Division Zygomycota

Division Deuteromycota

slide16

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Deuteromycota

Fungus-like protist

division chytridiomycota
Division Chytridiomycota
  • mainly aquatic.
  • Some are saprobes, while others parasitize protists, plants, and animals.
  • chitinous cell wall
  • flagellated zoospores
  • the most primitive fungi
slide19

Division Zygomycota

“Zygote fungi”(bread molds)

Zygote = “mated” hyphal strands

Live in soil, water

Some are parasites

600 species

slide22
The zygosporangia are resistant to freezing and drying.
  • When conditions improve, the zygosporangia release haploid spores that colonize new substrates.
    • Pilobolus aiming its spores.
slide24

Division Ascomycota

“Sac fungi”(truffles, yeast)

Beer > 6,000 years

Wine > 8,000 years

Lichens

Decomposers, pathogens

“yeast” describes a form of fungi (i.e., non-hyphal)

60,000 species

slide25

Division Ascomycota

Scarlet cup

Morchella

truffles

slide26

Division Ascomycota

Close up of cheese showing blue-green mycelium of Penicillium roqueforti.

Roquefort cheese

slide30
Ascomycetes are characterized by an extensive heterokaryotic stage during the formation of ascocarps.
slide31

Division Basidiomycota

“Club fungi”(mushrooms)

Club-shaped reproductive structure

Food

Plant diseases

25,000 species

slide36

Division Deuteromycota

  • “Imperfect fungi”(penicillin)
  • Unrelated group
    • Asexual
    • No info on sexual cycle

25,000 species

slide37

Penicillin

Woops…

now Ascomycota

slide38

Candida albicans

“yeast infection”

slide40

Plant-Fungal Relationships

Mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”)

90% of tree species have this association

Very important to absorption of water and nutrients

slide41

Soil surface

Plant roots

Mycorrhizae

Increases s.a. for absorption