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BURLE INDUSTRIES Next Generation Large Area Low Cost PMT. UNO Collaboration Robert Caracciolo and Richard Leclercq 6 April 2005. BURLE INDUSTRIES. BURLE INDUSTRIES Overview. BURLE INDUSTRIES, INC. Conversion Tubes Power Tubes Real Estate BURLE ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.

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Burle industries next generation large area low cost pmt

BURLE INDUSTRIESNext Generation Large Area Low Cost PMT

UNO Collaboration

Robert Caracciolo and Richard Leclercq

6 April 2005


Aussois, France

Burle industries overview


Conversion Tubes

Power Tubes

Real Estate




BURLE deMexico

Aussois, France

Core competencies
Core Competencies

  • Conversion Tubes, Lancaster PA

    • Conventional PMT design and fabrication

    • Photocathode processing

    • Image tube design and fabrication

    • PMT Modules

      • Integrated VDN, HVPS, signal processing electronics

  • Power Tubes, Lancaster PA

    • Design and fabrication of vacuum tubes for power generation and switching

    • Plating and environmental testing

    • Ceramic-to-Metal joining techniques

  • BEO, Sturbridge MA

    • Microchannel plates

    • Channel multipliers

    • Fiber optics

Aussois, France

Pmt markets
PMT Markets

  • Medical Imaging

    • Maintain ~ 30% market share and growing

    • Provide high-volume tubes for both SPECT and PET

  • Have presence in general spectroscopy, scintillation counting, and HEP

  • Targeting the HEP market more aggressively

    • Development of the PLANACON family

    • Cost competitive fast timing PMTs such as the 8575B.

    • SBIR grant to develop large area PMT

Aussois, France

Large area pmt program
Large Area PMT Program

  • Actively working on Phase II objectives of a DOE SBIR to develop a 20” diameter PMT with cost < $0.75/cm2 of active area, including VDN and cabling

  • Will also develop 2”, 5”, and 8” variants

  • Want to establish close ties with researchers associated with proton-decay and neutrino experiments to aid in development

  • Represents a BURLE commitment to becoming a major player in the HEP market

Aussois, France

Phase i objectives
Phase I Objectives

  • Define the required PMT performance specifications for future proton-decay and neutrino experiments.

  • Review potential PMT bulb designs that are cost-effective in high volume production while being consistent with the requirements in 1 above.

  • Review the various electron multiplier configurations available relative to cost and performance.

  • Consider methods of integrating the components of 2 and 3 to establish a PMT with the proper performance requirements and yet is cost effective for production.

  • Consider cost-effective manufacturing techniques for the PMT designs identified in 4 above.

  • Plan for the capital requirements for manufacturing PMTs as identified in 5 above for delivery times of 5 years and 8 years with quantity of 60,000 20” PMT equivalent.

Aussois, France


Aussois, France

Multiplier design
Multiplier Design

Aussois, France

Photocathode design
Photocathode Design

  • Requirements for highest possible QE and lowest possible dark counts are in conflict.

  • Trade-study will be performed and initial PMT builds will be designed to optimize these parameters. Dark counts of 3kcps are possible, but QE will probably be limited to 20% max.

  • Electron multiplier design will influence the dark counts, and will be considered in that design

Aussois, France

Phase ii activities
Phase II Activities

  • Teamed with the Glass Technology Industry to develop the bulb, tooling, and manufacturing approach.

    • Establish a shape yielding good electron optics and mechanical integrity

    • Electron optics studies to establish novel focusing methods

  • Design, tool, and fabricate the electron multiplier.

  • Modify existing exhaust equipment to manufacture prototype PMTs.

  • Manufacture and test prototype PMTs.

  • Perform environmental tests on prototype PMTs including pressure, shock/vibration, and temperature.

  • Adapt existing process equipment for low-cost manufacturing.

Aussois, France

Bulb designs
Bulb Designs

  • Mushroom Shape

  • Good for electron optics

  • Large neck area allows for focusing electrode

  • Manufacturing approach does not yield consistent results leading to lower mechanical reliability

  • Design is not conducive to modern glass manufacturing technology

Aussois, France

Bulb designs1
Bulb Designs

  • Simple shape, easy to blow

  • Good for electron optics if mount is elevated to middle of bulb

  • Excellent mechanical strength

  • Larger volume than is necessary

  • Small neck implies simpler sealing techniques

Aussois, France

Bulb designs2
Bulb Designs

  • Possible methods to make this shape highly automated

  • Good for electron optics except for edge TTS

  • Good mechanical strength

  • Mount is lower in bulb

  • Good use of volume

  • Small neck implies simpler sealing techniques

Aussois, France

System design
System Design

Aussois, France

System design1
System Design

Aussois, France

Ideal front end optics
Ideal Front End Optics

  • Truncated bulb

  • Uniform E-field in front of cathode

  • Small neck

  • TTD ~ 1.5 ns

Aussois, France

Electron optics optimization
Electron Optics Optimization

  • Different Vectors for Simulations

    • 2 INCH

    • 5 INCH

    • 8 INCH

    • 20 INCH

  • Build prototypes and test

Aussois, France

2 inch 3d model

Aussois, France

Coincidence resolving time
Coincidence Resolving Time

LSO 4*4*20 mm

Test PMT

¾” PMT















Aussois, France

Burle industries next generation large area low cost pmt

8575B 2 Inch Prototype



0.120.38 0.00 0.49 0.80

-0.210.25 0.00 0.05 0.12

0.800.91 0.71 0.84 0.97

0.990.92 0.82 0.97 0.94

Aussois, France

2 inch anode uniformity
2 INCH Anode Uniformity

Aussois, France

General milestones
General Milestones

  • 5 Inch PMT 2nd Quarter 05

    . Compare with 8854

    . Sample to Stony Brook

    . Pressure Test

  • 8 Inch PMT 2nd Quarter 06

  • 20 Inch PMT 4th Quarter 06

Aussois, France


  • Interfacing with glass and bulb manufacturers to optimize cost-effective bulb design.

  • FEA and environmental testing to validate mechanical integrity of bulb.

  • Employing 2-D and 3-D electron optics models.

    • Cathode to Dy1 fields

    • Dy1 to the electron multiplier fields

  • Design and implement novel focusing elements. Required for a bulb with a small neck.

  • Validated our design concepts on the 2” PMT. Will continue with the 5”, 8”, and 20” PMT’s.

  • Reviewing different photocathode processes and or design to optimize balance of QE and Dark counts.

Aussois, France