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Antibiotics Vs. Vaccines. A discussion which incorporates three kingdoms and the nonliving…. Antibiotic Medicines. What are they and when are antibiotics used?

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antibiotics vs vaccines

Antibiotics Vs. Vaccines

A discussion which incorporates three kingdoms and the nonliving…

antibiotic medicines
Antibiotic Medicines
  • What are they and when are antibiotics used?
  • Antibiotics are for bacterial infections (Monera). Some bacteria can make another organism sick. The antibiotics help the immune system fight the infecting bacteria (in advanced animals).
antibiotic medications
Antibiotic Medications
  • Where do antibiotic medications come from?
  • Fungi! Fungi naturally secrete chemicals which attack bacteria. This allows fungi to compete with bacteria that want to decompose the same food source.
  • Penicillin is an antibiotic medication derived from the mold (fungus) called Penicillium.
vaccines
Vaccines
  • What are they and when are vaccines used?
  • Vaccines are not medications. Vaccines contain a mixture of dead and/or weakened viruses (or bacteria). Vaccines train the immune system (advanced animals only) to recognize an infective virus and destroy the virus before the animal can become sick.
  • Vaccines must be given before illness, which is why children, pets, and overseas travelers are given vaccines.
slide5

White blood cells fight infection (any foreign protein)

  • Memory cells in the immune system can be trained to remember invading viruses, which is why vaccines create permanent or temporary immunity.
what is a virus
What is a virus?
  • A virus is a protein coat surrounding a short DNA (or RNA) strand.
  • Viruses are not defined as “living” and are not classified in a kingdom.
  • Viruses are not heterotrophs or phototrophs, do not respond to stimuli, and cannot reproduce on their own.
  • Viruses must use a “host” cell’s machinery (organelles and enzymes) to make more viruses…
  • The host cell usually dies. Afterward, more viruses infect other host cells.
  • Viruses are “host specific”.
  • Please see p. 195-197 in your Biology textbook.
common vaccines
Common Vaccines
  • Children: Measles, Whooping cough, Chicken pox
  • Pets: Rabies
  • World Health Organization: Rotavirus
  • Adults and children: Influenza, Hepatitis
  • College students: Meningcoccal meningitis
  • Devastating viral diseases no longer common due to vaccines: polio, small pox
  • There is no vaccine for HIV (AIDS) or the common cold (rhinovirus).
public awareness and health
Public Awareness and Health

To STOP the overuse and misuse of antibiotic medicines!

European Antibiotic Awareness Day:

November 18th

Antibiotic Awareness Week in Canada:

November 12-18, 2012

the careful use of antibiotics
The Careful Use of Antibiotics
  • Antibiotics do not fight viruses!
  • Antibiotics should be not taken for anything other than a bacterial infection.
  • ONLY take antibiotics prescribed by your doctor for YOU and always finish the ENTIRE prescription.
what is antibiotic resistance
What is antibiotic resistance?
  • Overuse or incorrect use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is dangerous and can be harmful to all organisms in a population.
  • Antibiotic resistance is an inherited trait in bacteria which makes them very difficult to kill with antibiotic medications.
  • How can this happen?
  • Discuss!
public awareness and health1
Public Awareness and Health

“Resistance Fighter” Campaign in Australia

“Get Smart” Campaign in the United States with awareness week of Nov. 18-24, 2013

CDC Online materials