Why study Native American history? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why study Native American history? PowerPoint Presentation
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Why study Native American history?
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Why study Native American history?

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  1. Why study Native American history? Modern relevance: The “reconquista”

  2. Pre-Contact Native American Society

  3. Native American Origins • Native accounts • Scientific explanations

  4. Iroquois Origin myth

  5. Scientific explanations of Native American origins • Bering Strait land bridge • Original migration • Later migrations (Athapascans, Inuits, Aleuts) • Local coastal migration (north to south) • Transoceanic migration (from Europe, Asia, or Polynesia)

  6. The Bering Land Bridge

  7. Kennewick Man • Kennewick man discovered in 1996 in Washington. • Picture shows an anthropologist’s reconstruction of Kennewick man’s appearance.

  8. Controversy over Kennewick Man • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) • Competing explanations for origin: Native American vs European

  9. What is “Indian”? • No single native culture • Not static • Cultural patterns influenced by environment

  10. Five examples • Mexico • American midwest • American southwest • American east coast • Canada

  11. The problem of Source Bias

  12. Mexico • Sources: • Early explorers’ accounts • Archaeology • Early ethnographies (Sahagun history, Florentine codex)

  13. Tenochtitlan

  14. Teotihuacan

  15. Florentine Codex

  16. Nahuatl (Aztec) picture writing

  17. Mayan hieroglyphics

  18. American Southwest • Sources: • Early explorers’ accounts • Native American oral histories • Archaeology

  19. American Midwest • Sources: • Early western explorers’ diaries and letters • Archaeology

  20. Cahokia, near present-day St. Louis, MO: estimated population 20,000estimated time period: 900-1550 AD

  21. Trade • Long-distance trade networks • Examples of trade centers: Chaco, Casas Grandes, Cahokia

  22. American East Coast • Sources: • Early ethnographies (John White, Thomas Hariot) • Archaeology • Early contact accounts

  23. John White watercolors (Engraved and mass-produced by Theodore deBry)

  24. Agriculture Secotan, Indian village in Virginia

  25. Trade and ritual Wampumpeage, or wampum, made from shells

  26. Canada • Sources: • The Jesuit Relations • Other early accounts • Native American oral histories

  27. Iroquois longhouses