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Native American History in 4 th and 5 th Grade Using Oral History in the Classroom In your table groups, please discuss: When during the year and how much do you teach the history of Indians in your classroom?

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native american history in 4 th and 5 th grade

Native American History in 4th and 5th Grade

Using Oral History in the Classroom

in your table groups please discuss
In your table groups, please discuss:
  • When during the year and how much do you teach the history of Indians in your classroom?
  • How do you teach Native American history? What materials and/or activities do you use?
  • Do you have Indian children in your classes?
  • Have you had a chance to talk with a Native American person about his or her heritage?
  • What goals do you have when you teach Indian history? (e.g. cover curriculum, cultural awareness, etc.)
native american history in the 4 th grade
Native American History in the 4th grade
  • 4.2 Major nations of California Indians & lifeways; Interactions among Indians, explorers, Spanish missionaries, and rancheros
  • 4.5 Systems of California governance including Indian rancherias
native american history in the 5 th grade
Native American History in the 5th grade
  • 5.1 Describe major pre-Columbian settlements & lifeways
  • 5.3 Conflict & cooperation among Indian nations and between Indian nations and European settlers, including competition to control North America, fur trade, cultural interchanges, broken treaties, resistance to encroachments & assimilation, and significant leaders
  • 5.6 Impact of early U.S. land policies on Indian lands
challenges to teaching native american history
Challenges to teaching Native American History
  • “Vanishing Indian” myth
    • Physical destruction (disease, warfare, etc.)
    • Cultural destruction
  • Lack of Good Information & Resources
    • See handout
  • Not enough time/not covered in standards
native americans today
Native Americans Today
  • Who are Native Americans today? Where do they live? What do they do for a living? Where do they go to school? In what ways do their cultural traditions shape their lives? How do Indian tribes govern themselves? What is their relationship with state & federal governments? What do Native Americans today think about their history in the U.S. and the way in which that history is taught in the classroom?
oral history is
Oral History is . . .
  • The recollections & reminiscences of living persons about their past;
  • Historical inquiry that is undertaken by interviewing individuals about the events they have personally experienced;
  • A collaboration between the interviewer (who asks the questions) and the person being interviewed (who tells the stories).
oral history is not
Oral History is NOT . . .
  • Role-playing (answering questions in the personal of a historical character);
  • Oral tradition (carefully handed down stories & traditions, according to strict rules, within an oral culture).
benefits of oral histories in the classroom
Benefits of Oral Histories in the Classroom
  • Brings the social studies curriculum alive
  • Involves active learning
  • Builds critical thinking skills
  • Suited to non-native English learners and young children
  • Develops strong oral language skills
a variety of types of data collection related to oral history
A Variety of Types of Data Collection related to Oral History
  • Group Interview
  • Individual Interviews
  • Survey Sent Home
  • “Object” Interview
  • Field Trip Interview
oral history manners
Oral History Manners
  • Be on your best behavior
    • Be polite and friendly
    • Be on time
    • Be respectful
    • Make the interview a pleasant experience
  • Do not argue with the person you interview
  • Listen, listen, listen
some dos and don ts for oral interviewing
Some Dos and Don’ts for Oral Interviewing
  • Come well prepared; know your subject and your equipment
  • Be polite & friendly
  • Begin with simple, comfortable questions
  • Ask questions one at a time
  • Allow silences; give interviewee time to think
  • Speak clearly so the narrator can understand and hear you
  • Ask clear, brief questions
  • Ask open-ended questions, not yes-or-no questions
  • Listen actively and ask follow-up questions
  • Do not contradict or correct the narrator; keep personal opinions to yourself
  • Avoid asking leading questions
  • Do not rush the end of the interview. End on a positive note.
practicing oral interviews bloopers
Practicing Oral Interviews: Bloopers
  • Choose one of the items on the dos and don’ts handout
  • Interview a partner doing the opposite of what you should do.
    • For example, ask only yes-or-no questions, OR argue with the speaker
practicing oral interviews mock interviews
Practicing Oral Interviews: Mock Interviews
  • Each take 3-5 minutes to interview the other on one of the following subjects. Practice as many good interviewing techniques as possible, especially—active listening and follow up questions
  • Topics:
    • Why you became a teacher
    • Your first work experience
    • Your dream trip or vacation
generating questions for the group interview
Generating Questions for the Group Interview
  • Big Question: Who are Native Americans today? How does their cultural heritage shape their lives?
  • What do we know about Charlie Toledo? (Handouts)
generating questions for the group interview16
Generating Questions for the Group Interview
  • In your group:
    • What is your goal—the main topic you want to cover?
    • Generate 1 question you want to have answered for sure;
    • Generate 2-3 questions you would like to have answered if there is time;
    • Imagine kinds of follow up questions you might ask
    • Decide: Who will ask the first question? Who will ask follow up questions? Who will take notes?
assign roles for the group interview
Assign Roles for the Group Interview
  • Greeters: Greet our guest, escort her to her seat, provide her with water and anything she needs
  • Consent Form: Go over the consent form with our guest and ask her to sign it
  • Recorders: Operate the tape recorder, make sure it is working, make sure to flip the tape in the middle
  • Time Keepers: Make sure each group gets a turn to ask questions; make sure interview ends on time
  • Escorts: Thank our guest, escort her to lunch
follow up options with oral interviews
Follow Up Options with Oral Interviews
  • Writing—e.g. essays, research papers
  • Math exercise—tally and graph findings
  • Poetry—e.g. found poem
  • Visual Arts—portraits, maps, posters
  • Theater—monologues, dramatizations, vignettes
  • Music/Dance
  • Class Book
  • And More!
our class book
Our Class Book
  • In your group:
    • Divide into 3 working teams
    • Team 1: Using the handout, create a page on the early history of the Indian community you have been assigned.
    • Team 2: Using the handout, create a page on the more recent history of the Indian community.
    • Team 3: Choose one question and one quote from your table’s section of today’s interview to include in the book and copy it onto the book paper.