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Protection, Support, and Movement

Protection, Support, and Movement

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Protection, Support, and Movement

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  1. Protection, Support, and Movement Chapter 39

  2. KEY CONCEPTS • Many structures and processes have evolved in animals for protection, support, and movement

  3. Learning Objective 1 • Compare the functions of the external epithelium of invertebrates and vertebrates

  4. Epithelial Tissue • In both invertebrates and vertebrates • protects underlying tissues • specialized sensory or respiratory functions • Outer epithelium specialized to secrete • lubricants or adhesives • odorous or poisonous substances

  5. Epithelial Tissuein Invertebrates • Cuticle • protective shell secreted by outer epithelium

  6. Integumentary System of Vertebrates • Skin and structures that develop from it • Mammalian skin includes • hair, claws or nails, sweat glands, oil glands, sensory receptors

  7. Learning Objective 2 • Relate the structure of vertebrate skin to its functions

  8. Feathers and Hair • Feathers of birds and hair of mammals • form insulating layer • helps maintain constant body temperature

  9. Epidermis 1 • Protects body from outer environment • Stratum corneum • most superficial layer • consists of dead cells filled with keratin • Keratin • insoluble protein • gives mechanical strength to skin • reduces water loss

  10. Epidermis2 • Stratum basale • cells divide, are pushed up to skin surface • cells mature, flatten, produce keratin • eventually die and slough off

  11. Dermis • Consists of dense, fibrous connective tissue • Rests on layer of subcutaneous tissue • composed largely of insulating fat

  12. Human Skin

  13. Openings of sweat glands Nerve endings Capillary Stratum corneum Melanocyte (pigment cell) Epidermis Stratum basale Hair erector muscle Dermis Hair shaft Sensory receptor (Pacinian corpuscle) Subcutaneous tissue Artery Hair follicle Sweat gland Vein Sebaceous gland Fig. 39-1, p. 829

  14. KEY CONCEPTS • Epithelial coverings protect underlying tissues and may be specialized for sensory, respiratory, or other functions

  15. Learning Objective 3 • Compare the structure and functions of different types of skeletal systems, including the hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton

  16. TheSkeletal System • Supports and protects the body • Transmits mechanical forces generated by muscles

  17. Hydrostatic Skeleton • Fluid in closed body compartment • transmits forces generated by contractile cells or muscle • Found in soft-bodied invertebrates • cnidarians, flatworms, annelids

  18. Hydrostatic Skeleton

  19. Longitudinal contractile fibers of epidermal layer Circular contractile fibers of gastrodermis Contraction of circular contractile fibers elongates the body. (b) Contraction of longitudinal fibers shortens the body. Fig. 39-2, p. 830

  20. Longitudinal contractile fibers of epidermal layer Circular contractile fibers of gastrodermis Contraction of circular contractile fibers elongates the body. (b) Contraction of longitudinal fibers shortens the body. Stepped Art Fig. 39-2, p. 830

  21. Exoskeletons • Nonliving skeleton • characteristic of mollusks and arthropods • doesn’t grow, arthropods must molt periodically • Arthropod skeleton • composed partly of chitin • jointed for flexibility • adapted for many lifestyles

  22. Ecdysis

  23. Endoskeletons • Consist of living tissue • can grow • Found in echinoderms and chordates

  24. Learning Objective 4 • Describe the main divisions of the vertebrate skeleton and the bones that make up each division

  25. The Vertebrate Skeleton 1 • Axial skeleton • skull • vertebral column • rib cage • sternum

  26. The Vertebrate Skeleton 2 • Appendicular skeleton • limbs • pectoral girdle • pelvic girdle

  27. Fig. 39-5, p. 832

  28. Skull Sternum Rib cage Vertebrae Axial skeleton (brown) Fig. 39-5a, p. 832

  29. Clavicle Scapula Humerus Pelvic girdle Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Appendicular skeleton (brown) Fig. 39-5b, p. 832

  30. KEY CONCEPTS • Skeletal systems, whether they are hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, or endoskeletons, support and protect the body and transmit mechanical forces important in movement

  31. Learning Objective 5 • Describe the structure of a typical long bone • Differentiate between endochondral and intramembranous bone development

  32. A Long Bone • Consists of • a thin outer shell of compact bone surrounding inner spongy bone • a central cavity that contains bone marrow

  33. A Long Bone

  34. Articular surface covered with cartilage Epiphysis Red marrow in spongy bone Metaphysis Periosteum Yellow marrow Blood supply Diaphysis Compact bone Articular cartilage Epiphysis Fig. 39-6, p. 833

  35. Bone Development • Long bones • develop from cartilage templates during endochondral bone development • Other bones (such as flat bones of skull) • develop from noncartilage connective tissue model by intramembranous bone development

  36. Bone Cells • Osteoblasts • cells that produce bone • Osteoclasts • cells that break down bone • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to shape and remodel bone

  37. Learn more about the human skeletal system and a typical long bone by clicking on the figures in ThomsonNOW.

  38. Learning Objective 6 • Compare the main types of vertebrate joints

  39. Joints • Junctions of two or more bones • Ligaments • connective tissue bands • connect bones • limit movement in joint

  40. Types of Joints • Immovable joints • sutures of the skull • Slightly movable joints • joints between vertebrae • Freely movable joint • enclosed by joint capsule lined with membrane that secretes synovial fluid

  41. Learning Objective 7 • Relate the structure and function of insect flight muscles

  42. Insect Flight Muscles • Large numbers of mitochondria and tracheae (air tubes) • support high metabolic rate required for flight

  43. Learning Objective 8 • Describe the structure of skeletal muscles and their antagonistic actions

  44. Muscular Systems • In vertebrates and most invertebrates • muscle tissue contracts (shortens) • moves body parts by pulling on them • Three types of muscle • skeletal • smooth • cardiac muscle

  45. The Muscular System

  46. Facial muscles Muscles that flex fingers Sternocleido- mastoid Platysma Trapezius Clavicle Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Biceps brachii Linea alba Brachialis External oblique Gluteus medius Wrist and finger flexors Gracilis Sartorius Triceps brachii Quadriceps femoris Patella Gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Tibia Soleus Fig. 39-8a, p. 835

  47. Sternocleidomastoid Biceps brachii Trapezius Deltoid Brachialis Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi External oblique Brachioradialis Muscles that flex fingers Gluteus maximus Gracilis Semitendinosus Hamstring muscles Biceps femoris Semi-membranosus Gastrocnemius Soleus Achilles tendon Calcaneus Fig. 39-8b, p. 835

  48. Vertebrate Skeletal Muscles • Pull on tendons • connective tissue, attaches muscles to bones • Muscle contraction • pulls bone toward or away from the bone with which it articulates

  49. Muscle Actions • Skeletal muscles act antagonistically to one another • Agonist • muscle that produces a particular action • Antagonist • produces the opposite movement

  50. Muscle Actions