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The Middle East

The Middle East

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The Middle East

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  1. Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East The Middle East

  2. What is the Middle East? Where did the term come from? (Is it in the “middle” of anywhere?) • Is it a defined land mass, or can it have different definitions? • If we don’t mean a defined set of countries, what do we mean by Middle East? What/Where

  3. Diversity and the Colonial Legacy

  4. Most Middle Eastern nations developed authoritarian governments. Egypt and Iraq- military overthrows Jordan and Saudi Arabia- modern monarchies Iraq and Syria- single party dictatorships Israel and Turkey- only countries to develop democratic systems but minorities faced issues Political Structures of the Middle East

  5. Some nations turned to socialism to end foreign economic control and modernize rapidly. To get capital, governments took foreign loans. Heavy borrowing left many nations deeply in debt. Economics of the Middle East

  6. Oil: An Important Resource • The US is particularly concerned with events and conflicts in the Middle East because our economy is dependent on middle eastern oil. • Answer questions 1 and 2 • Who’s got the oil? • Answer questions 1-3 Oil: Why’s it important?, Who has it?

  7. Impact of oil • Oil-rich nations built roads, hospitals, and schools. • Poorer countries lacked the capital needed for development. • The 1973 OPEC oil embargo showed that oil could be a powerful diplomatic and economic weapon

  8. Energy Crisis of the 1970s American oil consumption–in the form of gasoline and other products–was rising even as domestic oil production was declining, leading to an increasing dependence on oil imported from abroad. Despite this, Americans worried little about a dwindling supply or a spike in prices, and were encouraged in this attitude by policymakers in Washington, who believed that Arab oil exporters couldn't afford to lose the revenue from the U.S. market. These assumptions were demolished in 1973, when an oil embargo imposed by members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) led to fuel shortages and sky-high prices throughout much of the decade. Examples in Modern History

  9. Most of the region has limited rainfall. Oil-rich countries have built desalinizationplants. Individual nations have built dams to supply water. Nations must seek ways to use water cooperatively. Water Issues

  10. It has often been noted that Islam is a misunderstood religion. Many people think, for example, that Islam has little in common with the two world religions with which it is most closely associated: Judaism and Christianity • Who was the first prophet of Islam? • Muslims believe that Adam, the 1st human being, was the first prophet • Muhammad is the greatest prophet • Why is Abraham important to Muslims? • Muslims believe Abraham was called by Gov. to be an example to all believers. His child Ishmael is Muhammad’s ancestor. • Do Muslims believe in Jesus? • They believe in his ‘miracles’, his eventual return, but not that he is a son of God-instead he is a high prophet • Do Muslims believe in Jewish and Christian Scriptures? • Muslims believe that God sent the scriptures to Moses and Jesus • Do Muslims have to follow the Ten Commandments? • Yes, except for the ‘sabbath’, in addition they follow the ‘5 pillars’ Introduction to Islam-Q and A

  11. Holy Book= Qur’an or Koran • Place of Worship= Mosque • Important Teachings= The Five Pillars • belief • worship • charitable giving • fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm) • the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. • Sunni, Shi’i and Sufi Muslims • Different branches of Islam • Political difference over who should be the successor to Muhammad • Islam is a family-oriented religion, not all parts of the Islamic world adhere to a conservative Qur’anic law (Turkey for ex.) Islam means “peace through submission to God”

  12. A rejection of westernizations • Renewed commitment to Islam • Varied Impact • Some extremists justified terrorist attacks against authoritarian, secular governments • Other Muslim groups worked within the system for political reforms and social programs • Less of a separation between church and state Islamic Revival in the 1970s to today

  13. Of the current misperceptions about Islam, perhaps the most widespread is that women in Islamic law and Muslim Society are oppressed or lack rights. • To the contrary, the Qur’an specifically grants women a highly significant set of rights. • Selections on Women from the Qur’an • Read and discus your section with your group Women in the Muslim world

  14. The type most commonly worn in the West The al-amira is a two-piece veil. The shayla is a long scarf popular in the Gulf region. The burka is the most concealing of Islamic veils, covering entire face+body, leaving just a mesh screen to see through. The khimar is a cape-like veil. The chador, worn by many Iranian women when outside the house

  15. Women’s dress in Islam should not be viewed as oppressive or compulsory- many do it by choice • However, there have been cultural barriers to the exercise of women’s rights • Laws and traditions in some countries are responsible for this • Read the article: "Cry of Muslim Women for Equal Rights Is Rising," • What stereotypes about the Islamic world are reinforced when we only hear about the bad things that happen in Islamic societies? How might this reinforce a false sense of superiority in Westernized nations? Continuing Issues

  16. What issues has Turkey faced? Why was Egypt a leader in the Arab world? What were the causes and results of the revolution in Iran? Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies

  17. 3 What Issues Has Turkey Faced? • At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to expand southward into Turkey. • Turkey struggled to build a stable government. • Modernization and urbanization brought social turmoil. • Kurdish nationalists fought for autonomy. • Turkey was divided politically, with secular politicians on one side and Islamic reformers on the other.

  18. In the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination. Anwar Sadat came to power in the 1970s. He: • opened Egypt to foreign investment and private business • became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak: • reaffirmed the peace with Israel • mended fences with his Arab neighbors • faced serious domestic problems Egypt today- see link Egypt: A Leader in the Arab World

  19. How Revolutions Happen: patterns from Iran to Egypt Revolutions around the world

  20. Arab uprising: Country by country Arab Uprisings

  21. In 1945, western powers backed Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, despite opposition from Iranian nationalists. In the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who condemned western influences and accused the shah of violating Islamic law. The shah was forced into exile and Khomeini’s supporters proclaimed an Islamic Republic. Revolutionaries bitterly denounced the West. They attacked corruption, replaced secular courts with religious ones, dismantled women’s rights, and banned everything western. While, at first, they allowed some open discussion, before long they were suppressing opponents. Iran’s Ongoing Revolution

  22. "Argo" is based on Master of Disguise by Antonio J. Mendez (the CIA operative played by Ben Affleck in the film) and The Great Escape by JoshuahBearman.  The film shows six Americans escaping from the U.S. embassy in Tehran as it is overrun by young revolutionaries.  The six take refuge in the Canadian embassy (in reality, three of the Americans hid out with another Canadian national).  Mendez works with Oscar-winning makeup artist John Chambers (played by John Goodman) to create a fictional film production company; the cover story for the Americans' escape will be that they are Canadians scouting filming locations in Iran for "Argo" (originally titled "Lord of Light").  Amazingly, this tale of a fake movie is true.  Iran’s Revolution and Hostage Crisis:As Told by the film argo

  23. “Yesterday’s Hostages, Today’s Iran” • Iran Today