The Jackson Era 1829-1837
JQA First, a JQA flyby • John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) • “The Corrupt Bargain” Henry Clay • Adams lost to Jackson after one term.
Jacksonian Democracy • National Convention • Instead of members of Congress choosing Presidential candidates (caucus system), national nominating conventions began – opening up the process to common citizens • Secret Ballot • Early forms of today’s secret ballots began under Jackson’s presidency
Jacksonian Democracy • No property requirement: • By the mid 1820’s, most states had eliminated the ownership of property as a requirement for voting, many more Americans could then participate • Spoils System: “To the victor go the spoils” • Jackson supported the idea of appointing loyal party supporters to office • Veto power: • Jackson used the checks and balances power to veto more than all previous Presidents combined
The Bank War • Background: • Most Southern and Western states opposed the idea of a National Bank. Jackson felt he had a responsibility to the people to bring and end to it. • What Happened: • When the issue came up to extend the provisions of the national bank for another 20 years, Jackson vetoed it and pulled all the federal money from it • Wildcat Banks – Jackson took deposits from the Bank of the US and put them in state banks – thus killing the Bank of the United States
The Nullification Crisis • A battle of a state’s right to not obey a federal law • Tariff of 1828: • A tariff was placed on all imports into the country • This caused an increase in the price of manufactured products • States hurt most by this called it the “Tariff of Abominations” (South Carolina)
The Nullification Crisis • States’ Rights Argument • Led by John C. Calhoun • South Carolina argued that a state had the right to “nullify” (ignore) any federal law that they saw as unconstitutional • They said that since they originally agreed to form a nation, they also then had the right to break away or ignore the nation’s laws
The Nullification Crisis • Force Bill • Congress gave Jackson the power to use any means necessary to force South Carolina to pay the tariff • Resolution • Jackson eventually lowered the amount of the tariff • South Carolina withdrew it’s nullification
Indian Removal Act • In the 1830’s, President Jackson began the forced movement of native populations to the Great Plains area. • Worchester v. Georgia – the Cherokee went to the Supreme Court in order to prevent the state of Georgia from taking their land. They won the case, but Presidents Jackson and Van Buren ignored the ruling
Trail of Tears (1838) • Cherokee Nationwins Worcester case butJackson orders them removedanyway • Cherokee are marched nearly 1,000 milesfrom GA to Oklahoma • ¼ die alongthe way
Would you campaign for or against a third term for Andrew Jackson? “Old Hickory” vs. “King Andrew I” • 1) Classify as positive or negative each of Jackson’s actions as president. Explain your reasoning. • Lots of popular support in most open election to date justified his decisions • Spoils system • Veto-happy • Destroyed national bank • Handling of nullification crisis • Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears • 2) Compose a campaign slogan either for or against Jackson.