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session: i ntercultural COMMUNICATION. Internationalisation@home. Contents. Intro: Intercultural competence Definitions: communication, culture, intercultural communication What causes communication problems in an intercultural setting Verbal communication Non-verbal communication

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session i ntercultural communication

session: intercultural COMMUNICATION

Internationalisation@home

contents
Contents
  • Intro: Intercultural competence
  • Definitions: communication, culture, intercultural communication
  • What causes communication problems in an intercultural setting
    • Verbal communication
    • Non-verbal communication
  • Richard Lewis’ model of intercultural communication
  • Introduction to assignment
intro intercultural competence
Intro: Intercultural competence

“The 21st century is upon us. As inhabitants of this post-millennium world, you no longer have a choice about whether to live and communicate among many cultures. Your only choice is whether you will learn to do it well...”

Lustig, Koester & Taylor

intro intercultural competence1
Intro: Intercultural competence
  • The imperative for intercultural competence
    • Demographic imperative
    • Technological imperative
    • Economic imperative
    • Peace imperative
    • Interpersonalimperative
what is communication

Culture

Culture

Person

A

Person

B

Encode/ Decode

Send/Receive Messages through Various Channels

Encode/ Decode

Noise

Noise

Noise

What is communication?
  • Verbal and non-verbal (90%)
layers of culture
Layers of Culture
  • National
  • Regional
  • Educational
  • Professional
  • Gender
  • Class
  • Religious
  • Generational
  • Ethnic
  • Corporate
  • Personal

family

country

sports club

company

culture an iceberg
Culture, an iceberg …

Heroes

Social practices

Symbols

Rituals

Values

Norms

Beliefs

what causes communication problems in an intercultural setting

What causes communication problems in an intercultural setting?

Verbal and Non-verbal communication

cultural differences in communication
Cultural differences in communication

MESSAGE

SENDER

MASSAGE

RECEIVER

what can go wrong verbal 1
What can go wrong – verbal (1)
  • Non-native speakers (often at least one of them)
    • One-on-one translations
    • Translation of jokes, sayings, a pun … often not possible
  • Time relativity in a global perspective
  • Use of other measures
    • gallon, mile, ounce, …
what can go wrong verbal 2
What can go wrong – verbal (2)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) — “Failure to convert English measures to metric values caused the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter, a spacecraft that smashed into the planet instead of reaching a safe orbit, a NASA investigation concluded Wednesday. […]An investigation board concluded that NASA engineers failed to convert English measures of rocket thrusts to Newton, a metric system measuring rocket force. One English pound of force equals 4.45 Newton. A small difference between the two values caused the spacecraft to approach Mars at too low an altitude and the craft is thought to have smashed into the planet’s atmosphere and was destroyed.”
what can go wrong verbal 3
What can go wrong – verbal (3)
  • Pronunciation of words
    • “Sh” cannot be pronounced in Finnish
    • The English “th”
  • Different vocabulary
    • Snow (Inuit)
    • Green (Zulu)
what can go wrong verbal 4
What can go wrong – verbal (4)
  • Politeness
    • Vous / tu – u / jij - you
    • First names
    • Japan: “I” is different in different contexts
  • Grammar
    • Existence of present tense
    • Past tenses (was/has been)
      • My grandfather never went abroad ≠ has never gone abroad
    • Le subjonctifn’existe pas en néerlandais
what can go wrong examples3
What can go wrong – examples
  • Slogans
    • Parker Pen
      • "It won't leak in your pocket and embarrass you" translated into "It won't leak in your pocket and make you pregnant“
    • Pepsi
      • "Come Alive With the Pepsi Generation" translated into "Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back From the Grave" in Chinese
what can go wrong non verbal 1
What can go wrong – non-verbal (1)
  • Body-language
    • Nodding = YES or NO ???
    • Laughing = happiness or insecurity ???
    • Avoiding eye contact = respect or shame ???
    • Physical distance - touching each other - kissing
what can go wrong non verbal 2
What can go wrong – non-verbal (2)
  • Colours
    • Red = political colour of …
      • EU: left-sided political parties
      • US: Republicans
    • White = colour of …
      • EU: marriage
      • Catholics: joy
      • China, Muslim: death
what can go wrong non verbal 3
What can go wrong – non-verbal (3)
  • Symbols
    • Different meanings
    • Not understandable outside the group
  • Thumbs up = OK, …
  • but offensive in Greece
what can go wrong non verbal 7
What can go wrong – (non)verbal (7)
  • Direction in which we read
    • Left to right, top to bottom, …

… problems if the message is read from right to left

  • Our usual perspective
  • http://www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/worldmapper/index.html
listening habits
Listening Habits

– Belgium –

conclusion
Conclusion

‘Tolerance, intercultural dialogue and respect for diversity are more essential thanever in a world where people are becoming more and more closelyinterconnected.’

Kofi Annan

introduction to workshops
Introduction to workshops
  • Assignment
    • Case study: international meeting
    • Heterogeneousgroups
    • Given: info on verbal and non-verbalcommunication of cultures present in the meeting
    • Questions to beanswered: feelings, time schedule, contents of discussion, amount of talking & bywhom?,… during the meeting
    • Presentation in French
introduction to workshops 2
Introduction to workshops (2)
  • Dropbox Dokeos (Frans II)
  • Timing
    • Workshop
      • Monday 15h45 – 17h (Bruges)
      • Tuesday 9h30 – 11h (Tournai)
    • Plenary
      • Tuesday 11h – 12h30
      • Tournai