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Engineering Technology as a Career

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  1. Engineering Technology as a Career Dr Sam Man Keong 岑文强 CEng, CMath, CSci Email: sammk@singnet.com.sg ; HP: 96740515 A Career in Eng Tech

  2. About the Speaker – Prof Sam Man Keong • Singapore : SP/NUS/NTU. • Australia : MelbU/RMIT/CQU. • Chartered Engineer (UK/Ireland/Australia) • Chartered Builder (UK) • Chartered Mathematician (UK) • Chartered Scientist (UK) • A life-long learner. A Career in Eng Tech

  3. About SIET • Established : 1980. • Engineering Technologists; Engineering Technicians. • Poly/ITE graduates. • Website : www.siet.org.sg A Career in Eng Tech

  4. Highlights • Definitions: Science; Technology; Engineering. • Relationship: Science, Engineering and Technology. • The Five Main Branches of Engineering. • Engineering – Modern Era. • Usage of Technology. • Engineering in a Social Context. A Career in Eng Tech

  5. What is Science??? • Science(from the Latinscientia, meaning "knowledge") is the human effort to discover, understand, or to understand better, how the physicalworld works, with observablephysical evidence as the basis of that understanding. It is done through observation of existing phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate phenomena under controlled conditions. Knowledge in science is gained through research. A Career in Eng Tech

  6. BIOLOGY AND ANATOMY • Biology, the study of life, is a broad field covering everything from the little chemical machines inside our cells to the broad scale of theories about the ecosystem and global climate changes. • including cells, genes, evolution, the scientific method, and current issues. A Career in Eng Tech

  7. CHEMISTRY • Chemistry, the science that systematically studies the composition, properties, and activity of organic and inorganic substances, should become a focus to everyone. • As one of the most used sciences today, Chemistry is the study that connects the everyday world to the molecular world. In this subject, one learns how to break down substances, combine substances to make more complex ones, and also devise methods to help change the way we feel. A Career in Eng Tech

  8. PHYSICS • Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other.. • As a very broad subject, Physics is broken down into many branches which include Classical Physics, Quantum Physics, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Solid State Physics. A Career in Eng Tech

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE • Enviromnental Science is the science that describes the interrelationship among organisms, the environment, and all the factors which influence life on earth including atmospheric conditions, food chains, the water cycle, etc. A science about our earth and its daily activies, this science is important for everyone. A Career in Eng Tech

  10. Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955] - Theory of Relativity [Issac Newton (1642 – 1727)] - Law of Universal Gravitation A Career in Eng Tech

  11. [Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)] Charles Darwin:The Theory of Evolution A Career in Eng Tech

  12. [Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1884) –Genetics] [James Watson (1928 - ..) –DNA in 1953] with Francis Crick A Career in Eng Tech

  13. [Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691) – Boyle’s Law] A Career in Eng Tech

  14. [John Dalton(1766 – 1844) – Modern Atomic Theory] A Career in Eng Tech

  15. [Curie Marie (1867 – 1934) - She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first and only person honored with Nobel Prizes in two different sciences ] A Career in Eng Tech

  16. Stephen William Hawking (1942 - ) • 1970: Using quantum theory and general relativity he was able to show that black holes can emit radiation. His success with proving this made him work from that time on combining the theory of general relativity with quantum theory. • In 1971 Hawking investigated the creation of the Universe and predicted that, following the big bang, many objects as heavy as 109 tons but only the size of a proton would be created. A Career in Eng Tech

  17. What is Engineering? • Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientificknowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. A Career in Eng Tech

  18. Archimedes (287BC- 212BC) • His contributions in geometry revolutionised the subject and his methods anticipated the integral calculus 2,000 years before Newton and Leibniz. • He was also a thoroughly practical man who invented a wide variety of machines including pulleys and the Archimidean screw pumping device. A Career in Eng Tech

  19. Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703) • Robert Hooke was an English scientist who made contributions to many different fields including mathematics, optics, mechanics, architecture and astronomy. He had a famous quarrel with Newton. A Career in Eng Tech

  20. What is Technology? • Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human society, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the two concepts. A Career in Eng Tech

  21. What is Technology? • "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology". A Career in Eng Tech

  22. Science, Engineering and Technology (1) • The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Scienceis the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety. A Career in Eng Tech

  23. Science, Engineering and Technology (2) • Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result. A Career in Eng Tech

  24. Science, Engineering and Technology (3) • Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. A Career in Eng Tech

  25. The Five Main Branches of Engineering (1700 – Present) • Modern engineering and technology began in the 1700s and developed into five main branches: • Civil, • Mechanical, • Mining and Metallurgical, • Chemical, and • Electrical. A Career in Eng Tech

  26. Engineering – Modern Era (1) - Civil • Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. • Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering. A Career in Eng Tech

  27. Engineering – Modern Era (1) - Civil • It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. A Career in Eng Tech

  28. A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From right to left are the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid. A Career in Eng Tech

  29. Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. A Career in Eng Tech

  30. Great Wall of China A Career in Eng Tech

  31. Hoover Dam, USA A Career in Eng Tech

  32. Aerial view of Burj Dubai on October 26, 2008 [Height : 818 m] The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004 A Career in Eng Tech

  33. The Institution of Civil Engineers headquarters in London A Career in Eng Tech

  34. Sam at London - 1996 A Career in Eng Tech

  35. Engineering – Modern Era (2) - Electrical • Electrical Engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty. A Career in Eng Tech

  36. Engineering – Modern Era (3) - Mechanical • The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. A Career in Eng Tech

  37. Engineering – Modern Era (3) • The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S. • In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by computer engineerAlan Emtage. A Career in Eng Tech

  38. Usage of Technology (1) • The human race's use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. A Career in Eng Tech

  39. Usage of Technology (2) • Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisureclass. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. A Career in Eng Tech

  40. Hand axes from the Acheulian period A Career in Eng Tech

  41. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. A Career in Eng Tech

  42. The wheel was invented in circa 4000 BC. A Career in Eng Tech

  43. Watt steam engine A Career in Eng Tech

  44. Design of a turbine requires collaboration from engineers from many fields A Career in Eng Tech

  45. By the mid 20th century, humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. A Career in Eng Tech

  46. Engineering in a Social Context • Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility, as represented by many of the Engineering Institutions codes of practice and ethics. A Career in Eng Tech

  47. Engineering in a Social Context • Engineering projects can be subject to considerable controversy. • Some examples : the development of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges Dam, the design and use of Sports Utility Vehicles and the extraction of oil. A Career in Eng Tech

  48. 2nd World War : 1945 Map showing the locations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan where the two atomic weapons were employed A Career in Eng Tech

  49. Atomic Bombs : 2nd War World • The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945, roughly half on the days of the bombings. Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illness attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs. In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians. A Career in Eng Tech

  50. 6 August 1945 : The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy A Career in Eng Tech