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Classification - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Classification

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  1. Classification • 5/6 Kingdoms (depending on who you talk to – 6 kingdoms is the now acceptable answer) • Grouped according to _____________relationships • Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order – Family – Genus – species • Scientific name Genus species or G. species

  2. Why Classify • Use classification in order to name organisms and group into logical order • We use ______________________ – assigned a two part scientific name • Carl Linnae (Carolus linnaeus) system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories that we still use today

  3. How do we classify? • We use to classify based of _________similarities. • Now based on evolutionary descent and DNA • The more DNA/ RNA in common (think banding patterns in a gel) the more closely related • Know figures 18-12 and 18-13 in text

  4. VIRUSES – Living? • Do not fit into a taxanomic group – do not reproduce on their own • Virus Life Cycle – • _________ • _________ • _________ and assembly • _________

  5. Monera – (_________ / _________) • Prokaryotic • Single celled • Circular DNA • Asexual reproduction

  6. Monera shapes and names Name based on shapes coccus (spherical) bacillus (rod-like) spirillum (spiral) filamentous Strep – chain Staph – like grapes Diplo - two

  7. Monera phylum • Phylum – Cyano bacteria – blue green algae – • autotrophic • Phylum – bacteria • Heterotrophic • Act as symbionts, parasites, or decomposers

  8. Kingdom Protista • _________ • Most are _________– but can grow in colonies and act as an organism • Divided into three divisions as _________, _________, _________

  9. Protista Phylums • Phylum _________– _________– use membrane extensions called _________(“false foot”) enuglf their prey. Generally live in fresh water • Amoeba eating

  10. Protista’s con’t • Phylum _________– _________spore forming parasites. Lives inside the cells of animals – like in mosquitos the plasmodium that causes malaria

  11. Phylum _________ • Propel themselves by waving many short hairlike structures called _________ • Unlike other protists, have 2 nuclei • Heterotrophic

  12. Phylum – _________/ euglena • Flagellates • Plant – like/ _________

  13. Phylum – _________/ acrasiomycota or Slime molds • slime mold • Plasmodium consists of a single cell with multiple nuclei • Creeps slowly along decaying vegetation they digest • Use spores to reproduce • Acrasiomycota merge together to form a slug

  14. Phylum chlorophyta/ phaeophyta Algae • Phaeophyta – _________/ seaweed ranging from 1” to length of a football field • _________ like plants but can be unicellular and not specialized

  15. Kingdom - Fungus • Have _________ made of chitin • Heterotrophic – _________/ decomposers

  16. Fungus

  17. Overview of Fungus • Have some plant characteristics, but are NOT plants • Grow in _________,________,________, on decaying logs/ soil • Reproduce by spores • Cell walls made of CHITIN • Have large cells with many nuclei in each

  18. Grow by producing long, thin filaments called ______________ • DO NOT have chlorophyll • Digest their food BEFORE it’s ingested • Most are Saprophytic • Some are parasites • All are decomposers

  19. Molds • DO NOT have walls between cells – many nuclei • Two types • ______________ molds • Caused the potato famine in Ireland • ______________ molds • Rhizoids – are a root like structure that anchor mold and absorb nutrients

  20. Sac fungi • These fungi have cross walls separating nucli • Yeasts • Cup Fungi • Lichens • (symbiotic relationship of algae and a fungus)

  21. ______________ fungus • Most are saprophytic • Mushrooms • Food sources – beneficial, poisons – harmful • Rusts and Smuts • Parasitic fungus that destroy crops

  22. ______________ Fungus • Used to make penicillium • Cause disease such as ringworm, thrush, athletes foot

  23. Kingdom Plant • Complex ______________ photosynthetic autotrophs • Cell walls of ______________(3 layers) and chloroplasts (autotrophic • 4 major groups

  24. ______________ • Non vascular plants –are mosses - lacks vascular tissue (no xylem or phloem)

  25. These are your ferns Use spores to reproduce Have phloem and xylem Can grow taller due to transport of water Seedless vascular plants

  26. Don’t have an enclosed chamber for the seeds to develop in ______________

  27. Flowering plants Two major classes Monocots Dicots ______________

  28. Kingdom Animal • _______________ • _______________ • _______________ • Specilized tissues to perform various functions • Most are motile (during at least one part of their life) • Scientist use what type of _______________ of an animal has to classify them into groups

  29. Phylum porifera / sponges • _______________symmetry • Specialized cells for feeding (by filtering water) and reproduction • Has a skeleton to maintain their shape • Skeleton used as natural sponges for bathing * protostome

  30. Phylum cnidaria – hydra, jellies, sea anenome • Stinging marine animals • _______________ symmetry • True digestive gut • One opening for mouth and anus • Protostome

  31. Phylum platylhelminthes / flatworms • _______________ symmetry • Has all three embryonic layers (endo/meso/ectoderm) • Has a digestive gut with one opening • protostome

  32. Phylum nematoda/ roundworm • Most are free living but some are parasites • Soil dwelling are decomposers • _______________ symmetry • Digestive gut with 2 openings • protostome

  33. Phylum annelida/ segmented worms - earthworms • Annelida means ringed • Bilateral symmetry • Excretory organs called nephridia • Closed circulatory system • Nerve cord with clusters of ganglia or nerve cells • Must live in moist environments to exchange gases with the environment • protostome

  34. Phylum mollusca • 3 subphylum – univalve/ bivalve/ cephlopod • Digestive tract/ circulatory system with heart • Move using a “foot” • Uses a rasping toungue called a radula and mantle that secretes a hard shell • protostome • Octopus eating

  35. Phylum Arthropoda – • “jointed feet” • Crustaceans, spiders, insects • Most diverse phylum • Exoskeleton made of chitin • Similar nervous system to annelids • Highly developed sensory perception • Use MALPHIGIAN TUBUKULES to eliminate wastes • protostome

  36. Phylum echinodermata • “spiny skin” (endoskeleton of spiny skin) • Move with tube feet • Simple nervous system with ring of nerves around their mouth and no brain • _______________

  37. Phylum chordata • Three embyonic layers • Complete digestive tract, well developed circulatory respiratory and nervous systems • HAS A NOTOCHORD – a tubular rod running down the back • Gill slits and tails present in embryonic development (may disappear during adult hood) • Several sub phylum's • DEUTEROSTOME

  38. Subphylum vertabrates • Several main classes • Jawless fish – bottom dwelling filter feeders breathe through gills • Cartilaginous fish (chondricthians) – sharks/ skates/ rays • Bony fish (osteichtihians) – skeletons of bone can live in fresh and salt water • Amphibians – must live near water to reproduce – breathe through their skin

  39. vertebrates • Reptiles – developed a fluid filled amniotic sac to hatch their eggs on land • All classes before birds are Ectothermic (cold-blooded) birds and mammals endothermic • Birds evolved wings, feathers, light bones, 4 chambered heart, special lungs for flight, hard shelled eggs • Mammals – feed young milk through mammary glands, have hair • Three types, uterine mammals, marsupials, monotremes • Most highly developed nervous system

  40. Terrestrial Egg